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Calcium dobesilate



   

[Intro]

Calcium dobesilate drug reagents, through the inhibition of vasoactive substances (histamine, 5 - hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin, hyaluronidase, prostate gonadotropin) caused by the high permeability of the role, thus improving the basement membrane collagen bio- synthesis. A variety of diseases caused by microvascular circulation disorder (capillary circulation disorder) have effect.


Drug Introduction

【English name】 Doxium tablets
[category] ENT medicine.
[Pharmacology] calcium dobesilate capsules (Calcium Dobesilate): Yes - the kinds of oral vascular protective agent on the DR, "three" factors significantly inhibit and reverse the effects. It can reduce the high permeability of the capillaries, reducing blood viscosity, reduce high platelet activity, thereby reducing the retinal exudation, bleeding, reduce capillary hemangioma. Studies have shown that after the diagnosis of diabetes has not happened yet clinically visible retinopathy when preventive medication, the prognosis is better on the DR. The therapeutic effect of calcium dobesilate capsules (calcium dobesilate) is multifaceted. By reducing capillary permeability, stability of the blood retinal barrier, can reduce retinal blood extravasation, keep the blood of normal dilution. Reduce the plasma protein molecules and reduce red blood cell rigidity and cohesion, can improve blood circulation: decrease platelet cohesion, prevents ischemia occurred. calcium dobesilate capsules (Calcium Dobesilate) because of its multifaceted role to reduce intraocular pressure: to increase blood flow to reduce retinal bleeding and high blood viscosity, improve the status of the retina of the DR and glaucoma patients, expand their horizons. Its outstanding clinical results and toxic side effects, long-term use for the prevention and treatment of DR and glaucoma patients intraocular lesions.
Indications diabetic retinal lesions.
consumption usage: oral subclinical retinopathy or preventive medication, daily 500mg in 1 or 2 times taking; non-proliferative retinopathy or occult retinopathy daily 750 ~ 1500mg, analysis 2 to 3 times daily; proliferative retinopathy, daily 1500 to 2000mg, divided into 3 to 4 times daily. The mild treatment for one to three months in the disease course of 6 to 12 months, severe course of treatment for 1 to 2 years. DR treatment with calcium dobesilate, 1500mg/day, three times a day orally.
【Note】 This product is less adverse reactions, mainly gastrointestinal discomfort; followed by fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, dizziness, headache; allergic skin reaction; occasional fever, sweating, facial red heat, heart discomfort. Gastrointestinal dysfunction, or who are allergic to disable.
[Specifications】 capsules: Each capsule 500mg, pack of 60. Xi'an lijun pharmaceutical AG, packing 500 mg of X30 tablets.
trade name

Drug detailed conditions: calcium dobesilate
Common name: calcium dobesilate capsules
English name: calcium dobesilate capsules to
Hanyu Pinyin: Qiangbenhuangsuangai Jiaonal
chemical name: 2,5 - dihydroxy - calcium dobesilate - hydrate

[characters]

This product capsules, the contents of a white or white granules or powder odorless, bitter taste.

[pharmacological action]

This product is to regulate the physiological function of the capillary wall and increase permeability and reduce drag, reduce plasma viscosity, decrease platelet aggregation, thereby preventing thrombus formation; by improving red blood cell flexibility indirectly to increase lymphatic drainage to reduce edema.

[indications]

prevention and treatment of the microvascular circulation disorder caused by a variety of diseases. The main treatment:
1, diabetes-induced retinopathy:
2, microcirculatory disturbance caused by the heart, brain, kidney disease, such as glomerular atherosclerosis psychosis;
3, lower blood viscosity;
4, to prevent micro-thrombosis;
5, limb numbness, pain, skin itching;
6, varicose veins and other syndromes.
the

Chinese pharmacopoeia amendments

calcium dobesilate Qiangbenhuangsuangai
calcium dobesilate
C12H10CaO10S2, H2O 436.42
This product is 2,5 - dihydroxy calcium dobesilate monohydrate, according to the solvent, anhydrous calculations, including C12H10CaO10S2 should be 99.0% to 102.0%.
【Properties】 white or off white powder; odorless, bitter taste; perishable case of light, moisture absorption.
This product is easily soluble in water, soluble in ethanol or acetone, very slightly soluble in chloroform or ether.
[differential] (1) of this product 0.1g, a test tube, add ethanol 2ml dissolved, dropping ferric chloride test solution 2 drop, which was blue, placed into a blue-violet.
(2) to remove the goods 0.1g, add water, 2ml dissolved, the solution is divided into 2 parts, 1 part add nitric acid 1ml, water bath 15 to 20 minutes, cooling, add barium chloride test solution 1ml Now, the white precipitate; another plus 1 drop of nitric acid, together with barium chloride test solution 1ml, no precipitation.
(3) This product is an aqueous solution of significant calcium salt, the differential response (Appendix III).
(4) made of this product, add water containing 25μg per 1ml of the solution, according to the uv - visible spectrophotometry (Annex iv A) Determination of maximum absorption in the wavelength of 221nm and 301nm.
[check] acidity to take this product, made by adding water containing 100mg per 1ml of the solution, in accordance with the law determination (Appendix VI H), the pH value should be 4.5 to 6.0.
clarity and color of the solution to remove the goods 1.0g, add water 10ml dissolved, the solution should be clear and colorless; such as significant turbidity, compared with the turbidity standard solution (Appendix IX B), shall not be thicker ; such as color, and yellow standard color solution (Appendix IX A first method), shall not be deeper.
related substances dark operation. goods from the amount, add water made per 1ml about containing 1mg of the solution, as for the test sample solution; precise amount of take the appropriate amount, plus water dilution into 1ml of each approximately containing 1μg of the solution, as the control solution; another precision, said taking hydrogen quinone amount of reference substance made by adding water containing 1μg about 1ml of each solution as the reference solution. According to hplc (Appendix VD) determination of octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as a filler; 0.05mol/L of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution - acetonitrile (98:2) as mobile phase; detection wavelength was 300nm. Dobesilate calcium peak, the number of theoretical plates of not less than 1000, the separation of calcium dobesilate in peak and hydroquinone peaks should meet the requirements. Take control solution 10μl into the liquid chromatograph, adjust the sensitivity, the principal component chromatographic peaks high as 20% of full scale to 25%; and then the precise amount of the test solution and control solution and reference solution, 10μl of were injected into the liquid chromatograph, record the chromatograms to the main component peak retention time of 4 times. chromatogram of the test solution, such as significant reference solution corresponding peaks, the peak area of ​​not greater than the reference solution the main peak area (0.1%); if any other impurity peak, a single impurity peak area no larger than the control solution The peak area (0.1%), the peak area of ​​each impurity, and shall not be greater than two times the control solution peak area (0.2%).
ethanol, isopropanol, 1,2 - dichloroethane precise amount of take propanol amount, add water into each 1ml of containing about 120μg of the solution as the internal standard solution. To about 0.2g, accurately weighed, Sticky bottles, precision by adding the internal standard solution to dissolve 2ml sealed bottle, as the test solution. Another ethanol, isopropanol and 1,2 - dichloroethane, the amount, accurately weighed, internal standard solution made of ethanol per 1ml contains about 500μg, isopropanol 500μg, 1,2 - dichloroethane 500ng a mixed solution, the precise amount of 2ml, Sticky bottles, seal the bottle, as the reference solution. Determination according to the residual solvents Determination (Appendix Ⅷ P method). (6 percent), cyanopropyl phenyl - (94%) dimethyl polysiloxane as the stationary phase capillary column; detector for the hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID); temperature programming, the initial temperature of 40 ° C for 5 minutes, 10 ℃ per minute heating rate rose to 150 ° C for 2 minutes, then 20 ℃ per minute heating rate rose to 240 ° C for 3 minutes; injection port temperature 230 ° C; detector temperature was 250 ℃; carrier gas was nitrogen. Headspace sampling vial balance temperature of 70 ° C, equilibrium time of 30 minutes, the injection volume was 1.0ml. Reference solution headspace samples, between the peak separation should be required. Were taken for the test solution and reference solution headspace injection, record the chromatograms, peak area calculation of the internal standard method should be specified.
water to take the goods, according to the determination of moisture content (Appendix the Ⅷ M France A) Determination of water containing 4.0% to 6.0%.
sulfate to take this product 1.0g, according to the law to check (Appendix VIII B) compared to the control solution with standard potassium sulfate solution 3.0ml made, shall not be thicker (0.03%).
iron salts to take this product 1.0g, according to the law to check (Appendix Ⅷ G), compared with the standard iron solution the 1.0ml made the control fluid may not be deeper (0.001%).
Heavy metals This product is 1.0g, add water, dissolved in 23ml vinegar formate buffer (pH 3.5,) 2ml, according to the law to check (Appendix Ⅷ H first method), containing heavy metals should not exceed ten millionths V.
[Content determination] to take this product of about 0.2g, accurately weighed set, add water 10ml to dissolve, add dilute sulfuric acid 40ml and phenanthroline indicator solution 2 drops of titration with cerium sulfate solution (0.1mol/L) titration, the solution was yellow green, per 1ml by ceric sulfate titrant (0.1 mol/L), equivalent to 10.46mg of C12H10CaO10S2.
[category] capillaries to protect drug
[Storage] sealed and preserved in a cool dark dry place.
[the preparation】 dobesilate calcium capsules


[Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. Boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is Staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. Ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. Facial Boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. Pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: Peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. Purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for Rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh Houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. Kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, Zhu Tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. Boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. Heat toxin Accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. Shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu Wei Di Huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one Dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. Oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang Feng Tong Sheng Wan, Liushen other medicine.

5. Unilateral prescription: Silver Flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. Facial Boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided Boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote Boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: Boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. Peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. Diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. Hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin D deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression

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