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Medical adhesive



   

[Intro]

Medical adhesive are the special features of the biomedical adhesives, in addition to the usual bonding features and mechanical function, but also has a the biomedical feature.


medical adhesive Overview

1.1 medical glue the definition of the international contact with the medical supplies used to make the human physiological environment (human tissue and blood) are collectively referred to as biomedical engineering materials in China management as a class III medical devices.

1.2 medical adhesive classification and standards

according to the 2005 Chinese medical device regulations and supervision guidelines, medical plastic in medical devices classified as Class III in 6865-3, including Medical α-cyanoacrylate, and the blessing Philharmonic medical adhesive standards YZB/country 0941-2003 as a state only recognized medical adhesive testing standards.


1.3 medical adhesive development history and status quo

In the surgery, antimicrobial, hemostatic is the basis of biological tissue repair, sewing, tie two basic operation of this method is not only cumbersome and laborious, and could easily lead to bleeding and damage to bring more pain to the patient; for those who can not find the bleeding point The area of ​​bleeding, the doctors could do nothing. Use adhesive to replace or partially replace the suture can be stopped using the spray adhesive oozing or closed cancer serosa of the small blood vessels, will be a revolution in surgery, the last century, in order to find an ideal medical adhesive made unremitting efforts.
today, people have developed thousands of adhesives, but can be suitable for medical indeed few are strict medical index card out.
Eastman910 produced by the Eastman Kodak Company, USA in 1959 (of α-cyano-methacrylate) instant adhesion to attract the medical profession.
1960, Nathan et al first used for arterial anastomosis [1], approved by the FDA in 1972 (α-cyanoacrylate, isobutyl) medical and then Ding only [2], until johnson & johnson in 2003 to our country to apply for FDA approval epidermal adhesive (2-OCA) (α-cyanoacrylate Chung-ethylhexyl) (2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate) to enter the beijing Union Medical College Hospital, but the price high and is limited to epidermal application has been neglected [3]
1963 the japanese Ministry of Health approved Hikaru フ of the ァ ロ nn ァ ァ A "Sankyo" (α-cyanoacrylate B/n-butyl) as a dental adhesive and surgical glue. Successively produced by Germany B.Braun blue plastic Histoacry the Blau (α-butyl cyanoacrylate), 1994 is priced at 375 yuan/0.5ml., 2000 in Germany ä Meyer-H & auml; k Ë company imports to China EPIGLU human tissue adhesive (of α-cyano-ethyl acrylate), high prices refrigerated limited to the epidermis.the production
1966 China's Liaoning Province Gaixian <661> (α-cyanoacrylate, isobutyl) (IBCA), 1994 wing city of Henan Province science and Technology experiment Factory/Beijing blink Sport Technology Development Co., Ltd., chairman of Mr. Chen Tiyi invented the medical adhesive of the country and the world recognized instantaneous Kang, 1999 and later appeared in succession (Kang Pat) (Branch) - Yichang Sheng Kang, medical adhesive products, the main rubber are (IBCA).
Shaanxi Province in 1971, the first produced by shanghai xinyi Pharmaceutical <504> (N-BCA) (α-cyano-n-butyl acrylate) is used for tubal sticky blocking sterilization, clinically proven < ; 504> polymerization is too fast a doctor too late to operate, hard and brittle, of the polymer monomer viscosity easy flowing, non-imaging insufficient in the 1974 national family planning work conference, lin jia mei and lin Qiaozhi proposed to be <504> modified before re-entering the human body. January 1978 at the Xi'an Institute of chemical engineering honor to preside over female sterilization sticky blocking agents and the men and women after sterilization stick blocking agent sixty-five technology research projects, access a large number of British, Japanese, russian German data, inspired by the Soviet Union a paper: high-carbon ester (506) can change the performance of low-carbon ester (501). can use α-cyanoacrylate octyl <508> (N -OCA) (N-octyl-α-Cyanoacrylate) change (504) the performance of the 200 synthetic test, we developed a purity of only 92% of the <508> monomer (by IR, NMR, elemental analysis), but also 84 formulation screening, developed in 1978 out of tubal sterilization stick blocking agent, referred to as the J-2 glue [4.5]. into the clinic on the basis of animal tests are successful then the development of successful men, J-3 glue [6.7] .. 1980 - 1983 by the Fourth military medical University, wuhan Tongji Medical College, Tianjin labor Health Institute, in the absence of any modern toxicology test reference case, the acute toxicity, sub-acute toxicity, chromosomal aberrations, and promote cancer, caused by (mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic), reproduction and other test results were negative. completed by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical antibacterial test (Staphylococcus aureus, white aureus Courtyard associated coccus, hemolytic streptococcus, A streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis, bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast, etc.) 11 kinds of bacteria in the formation of inhibition zone, Xi'an Medical freshman on the basis of the above biological tests , Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an, II, IV, Central Hospital, four medical Xijing Hospital, Tang du Hospital, Tongji Medical College, the First Hospital of Suzhou University, Shenyang, China Medical freshman Hospital, Fujian Nanping City Hospital shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Institute of dense anorectal hospitals hundreds of doctors, led by the famous organ transplant scientist Professor xia Suisheng the full assistance of 10 years (1978-1988), we developed: the J-2 plastic J-3 glue, developing CD plastic, ZT glue, plastic V-1, V-2 glue, TH plastic eye with plastic, OB glue, BC glue, Spray PW glue, ec glue, the F-TH glue, D -TH glue, ZM glue, hernia glue, such as <508> series of medical glue into the clinic 20 sections of approximately 1 million cases, only the J-3 glue in 13 cities and counties in Shaanxi Province reached 100,000 cases. [8.9] 1988-1989 in Xi'an, we held a seminar of the two medical adhesive, medical adhesive applied research a new milestone; has clinical full penetration of the 1991 medical adhesive Research Center south to Shenzhen and Guangzhou (1993) to achieve the transformation of the scientific research enterprise. (1993-1996), 3-4 seminar .5 seminar held in Guangzhou received a total of 625 hospital departments have doctors with plastic surgery routine with plastic [10] In 1994 a series of medical adhesive through national production appraisal, medical α-cyano-acrylate is included in the 1997 version of the national medical device Categories III class 6865-3. If 504 monomer as the first generation of medical adhesive 508 is the main glue a series of plastic as the second generation of medical adhesive, 2002 in beijing Zhongguancun high-tech Park, we have developed the spray-type fu Philharmonic medical adhesive could name the third generation of medical adhesive ─ blessing Philharmonic medical adhesive standards YZB/country 0941-2003 is listed as a country only recognized medical adhesive testing standards [11] clinical needs and doctors creative, medical adhesive Therapy [12]

2 blessing Philharmonic medical adhesive (FAL)

2.1 composition

the FAL optimized composition (: development of purity> 99% monomer), rubber performance [33-37]
the FAL by the high-purity α-cyanoacrylate, octyl (N-OCA) and α-cyanoacrylate n-butyl (of N-BCA). get rid of the second generation of medical glue 502, DTDP, plexiglass, freon and other various additives in the formula. The FAL curing time for the 2-6S (time to operation), the proliferation of performance closed the toughness of the polymer film bending 180 degrees of fracture, low polymerization heat, the adhesive strength to meet the clinical requirements.

2.2 FAL perfect sterile supporting Tools and Specifications

developed with plastic tools handy (were patent) [33-37], spray freely, As noted in the different clinical requirements, the doctor can choose the appropriate specifications.
the FAL specifications
smear type 0.5ml/sets
spray type 1.0ml/setsendoscopic type 1.5ml/

FAL clinical application

FAL improved monomer purity, optimizing the overall performance of medical adhesive, equipped with a variety of applicable tools, medical adhesive as will supplies in many departments, has developed into a school for the treatment of medical adhesive is widely used in general surgery, laparoscopy, neurosurgery, cardiothoracic, maternity, urology, orthopedics, mouth, nose, throat, burns plastic 20 sections surgery with hemostasis, closed bonding, the role of plugging, thrombosis, anti-adhesion, fixed comminuted etc. (limited space for another introduction.)

one, endoscopic spray adhesive Installation

spray adhesive device with the mirrors by a spray glue bottle with a spray adhesive used to stop bleeding nozzle without freon do propellants; medical polyethylene composition of materials by hot pressing sealed by epoxy oxide sterilization packaging, and easy to use, stable, safe and practical. the

two, use glue bottle with a sterile glass ampoule sucked out FAL injected into the spray glue bottle, connected to the endoscopic catheter, tighten the valve head, ligation or electrocoagulation was bleeding and net absorption of bleeding exudate, the wound is relatively dry cleaning endoscopic catheter along the laparoscopic sleeve sheath inserted, the nozzle distance wound spray pressure of about 4cm FAL3 ~ 6 seconds cured film, you can immediately stop the bleeding. If you still have bleeding, the net absorption blood repeat spray adhesive.

III clinical application

1, closed
laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery closed: with modified laparoscopic cholecystectomy, using a standard four-hole method is cholecystectomy, cystic duct and gallbladder vein of the processing to complete the classic method. The cholecystectomy placed in endoscopic catheter via the right anterior axillary line 5mm cone sheath, catheter tip away from the gallbladder bed, the gallbladder triangle and the cystic duct stump about 1.5-2.0cm at exhaustion oozing exudate, uniform spray FAL1.5ml. Natural curing film about three to six seconds, and immediately cover the wound, and the organization in close connection with non-exudative, played the role of hemostatic closure of the gallbladder bed and cystic duct stump, which can effectively prevent the gallbladder bed vagus small bile ducts and gall bladder tube clipping failure due to the small bile leakage occurred. Were observed after the ascites, bleeding, peritonitis,.
reflux laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery closed: the implementation of reflux surgery, wound oozing normal saline and attract, the use of the endoscopic device spraying FAL, from the wound 4cm, started 5 ~ 6 for the cheer, after 7 to 8 spray adhesive, 3 to 6 seconds can be seen solidified into a white film, oozing immediately be ended only coverage, and sealing role. Were observed after the adverse reactions.
2, to stop bleeding
hemostatic Salpingostomy: When tubal fenestration oozing surface is larger, coagulation may affect tubal pregnancy and then function, then take the first clamp base to stop bleeding, suction net invasive area of ​​blood be oozing surface dry cleaning, medical adhesive spray blessing Philharmonic, one minute after the loose hemostat way with good results.
ovarian tumors stripping to stop bleeding in surgery: laparoscopic surgery is equipment-dependent operation, hemostasis is relatively difficult, both to extend the operation time, in the hemostatic process easy matter to Vice injury application blessing Philharmonic will long nozzle casing mouth from the puncture into the abdominal cavity, align the wound or bleeding site from the wound 3 to 4cm press the spray bottle to spray evenly glue to cover the wound surface, a few seconds of film curing, immediately stop the bleeding. There were no intra-abdominal hemorrhage, fever and other complications.
3, adhesive
puncture adhesion of laparoscopic surgery: laparoscopic surgery completed the wound, pay attention to co-leather edge glue evenly applied to the skin surface, closed well, can not sew leather, so that the wound to heal naturally. simplifies the postoperative closure of the puncture hole.
4, anti-, plugging
anti laparoscopic appendectomy, plugging: laparoscopic appendectomy, laparoscopic catheter along the laparoscopic trocar is inserted to the stump at, spray treatment, and immediately closed the stump and wound bleeding. There was no stump leakage, abdominal hemorrhage, appeared peritonitis embolism.
the

use blessing Philharmonic medical adhesive is a synthetic colorless and transparent to the α-cyanoacrylate octyl (NOCA), α-cyanoacrylate is butyl (NBCA) biomedical engineering materials, composed of two kinds of monomer purity more than 99%.
ease of use: equipped with a handy plastic tool, spray painted with ease.

sterile spray glue bottle

the bleeding mouth of a large area without propellant Freon, inclination 60-90 degrees, will glue all the spray finished, improve the efficiency of adhesive application than the smearing times, disinfection seal, easy to use.

sterile spray glue bottle + long nozzle

can 360-degree rotating nozzle, the nozzle can be directly inserted into the operative field will glue sprayed on the surgical area and the deeper the wound, play better with plastic effect .

sterile Penjiao bottle + mirrors nozzle

can rotate 360 ​​degrees nozzle, along the sleeve sheath inserted into the wound, so that the nozzle can be directly stuck to the operative field, facilitate the endoscopic spraying.


[Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is Staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. Ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. Facial Boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. Pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: Peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. Purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for Rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, zhu tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. Boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. Heat toxin Accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu Wei di huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one Dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. Oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang feng Tong Sheng Wan, liushen other medicine.

5. Unilateral prescription: silver flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. Facial Boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided Boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote Boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: Boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. Peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. Diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin d deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression


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