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Thallium sulphate



   

[Intro]

Thallium sulphate of thallium (I) sulfate, also known as sulfuric acid, thallium, chemical formula Tl2SO4, highly toxic, and K2SO4 have the same structure.


the first part: chemical name

chemicals Chinese name: thallium sulphate

thallium sulphate


chemicals English name: thallous sulfate
Chinese name: sulfuric acid thallium
English name: dithallium sulfate
Sheet Code: 2539
cas No.: 7446-18-6
Molecular formula: Tl2SO4
Molecular weight: 504.80

Part II: composition/composition information

harmful substances composition cas No.
thallium sulphate 7446-18-6

Part III: the risk of Overview

risk category:
pathways:
health hazards: dust on the eyes, mucous membranes have a stimulating effect. Inhaled, ingested or absorbed through the skin and can cause poisoning. Can still be determined, liver and kidney damage. body hair loss is characterized, but the eyebrows medial 1/3 often not involved.
environmental hazards: hazard to the environment, can cause pollution of water bodies.
Explosion hazard: This product is non-combustible, highly toxic and irritating.

Part IV: first aid measures

skin contact: Immediately remove contaminated clothing, rinse with plenty of water. Medical treatment.
eye contact: Did eyelid, mobile water or saline rinse. Medical treatment.
Inhalation: rapidly from the scene to fresh air. To maintain airway patency. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If not breathing, give artificial respiration immediately. Medical treatment.
Ingestion: drink enough water to induce vomiting. Gavage with 1% potassium iodide 60mL. Medical treatment.

Part V: Fire-fighting measures

hazardous characteristics: itself does not burn. decomposition by high fever and emit toxic gas.
harmful products of combustion: sulfur dioxide, thallium.
fire fighting methods: firefighters must wear fire protective body suits, the wind on fire. Extinguishing as much as possible to move containers from the scene empty Department. And then select the appropriate fire extinguishing agent fire reasons.

Part 6: ACCIDENTAL release

emergency treatment: isolation leakage polluted with restricted movement. Recommended emergency personnel wearing dust masks, wear protective clothing. Do not direct contact with the spill. A small leak: to avoid dust, carefully scan, bag placed transfer to a safe place. Large Leak: recycling or collection shipped to the waste disposal sites.

Part 7: HANDLING AND storage

Handling Precautions: closed operation, provide adequate local exhaust ventilation. Prevent dust released into the air of workplace. The operator must go through specialized training, and strictly abide by the rules. The proposed operator to wear a dust mask (full face mask), wear protective clothing 52,400, wear rubber gloves. Avoid generating dust. Avoid contact with oxidants. With spill contingency processing equipment. The empty containers may be harmful residues.
storage precautions: Store in a cool, ventilated coffers. Keep away from fire and heat source. Prevent direct sunlight. Sealed packaging. With oxidants, food chemicals stored separately to avoid mixing reservoir. The storage area should be equipped with suitable material spill.
the eighth

Part I: Exposure controls/personal protective

occupational Exposure Limits
China MAC (mg/m3,): 0.01 (Tl)
former soviet union MAC (mg/m3,): 0.01
TLVTN: 0.1mg (Tl)/m3
TLVWN: the development of standards
monitoring methods:
engineering type control system: strictly confined, and to provide adequate local exhaust ventilation.
respiratory protection: possible exposure to dust, wear a dust mask (full cover). emergency rescue or evacuation, air respirator should be worn.
eye protection: respiratory protection for protection.
physical protection: wear protective clothing 52,400.
hand Protection: wear rubber gloves.
other: work site prohibit smoking, eating and drinking. Work is completed, take a shower. To maintain good health habits.
the ninth

parts: physical and chemical characteristics

The main ingredients:
Appearance and Properties: colorless or white rhombic crystal system crystallization.
pH:
melting point (° C): 632
boiling point (℃): (decomposition)
relative density (water = 1): 6.7700
Relative vapor density (air = 1): No Data
saturated vapor pressure (kPa): Not available
heat of combustion (kJ/mol): meaningless
critical temperature (℃): meaningless
Critical pressure (MPa): meaningless
octanol/water partition coefficient of the logarithm of: No Data
Flash point (℃): meaningless
Ignition temperature (℃): meaningless
upper explosive limit% (V/V): meaningless
lower explosive limit% (V/V): meaningless
Solubility: soluble in water, soluble in sulfuric acid.
main purposes: used as a rodenticide, analytical reagents.
other physical and chemical properties:

Part 10: stability and reactivity

stability:
INCOMPATIBILITY: strong oxidizers.
Conditions to avoid:
Hazardous Polymerization:
decomposition products:

Part XI: Toxicological Information

Acute toxicity: LD50: 16 mg/kg (rat oral); 19 mg/kg (mice by mouth)
LC50: no information
subacute and chronic toxicity:
irritation:
allergenicity:
Mutagenicity:
teratogenicity:
carcinogenicity:

part XII: Ecological Information

ecotoxicological toxicity:
biodegradability of:
non-biodegradable:
bioconcentration or bioaccumulation sex:
and other harmful effects: the substance of environmental hazards, should pay particular attention to water pollution.
the thirteenth

parts: DISPOSAL

Waste nature:
Waste Disposal Method: proposals to control the incineration or secure landfill method. disposal. Damaged container to prohibit re-use, to be buried in a specified place.
discarded Note:

Part 14: transport Information

Dangerous goods ID: 61023
UN Number: 1707
packaging and marking:
Packaging category:
packing method: threaded glass, metal cover pressure bottles, plastic bottles or metal (cans) outside the ordinary wooden box.
transportation Note: transport should be preceded by check the integrity of containers, sealed, to ensure that the container does not leak, did not fall, not fall, do not damage during transport. Mixed operation with the acids, oxidants, food and food additives is strictly prohibited. Transport, transport vehicles should be equipped with spill response equipment. Transit should prevent sunlight, rain, high temperature. according to the provisions of road transport routes, do not stay in residential areas and densely populated areas.

Part XV: Regulatory Information

Regulatory Information dangerous chemicals safety regulations (February 17, 1987 issued by the State Council), dangerous chemicals safety regulations implementation details (of labor [1992] No. 677), safety in the workplace chemicals regulations ([1996] Ministry of labor No. 423) and other regulations for the safety of hazardous chemicals, production, storage, transport, handling, etc. accordingly requirements; commonly used in the classification and identification of hazardous chemicals (GB 13690-92) the substance is classified as Class 6.1 toxic chemicals; highly toxic classification, classification and name number (GA 57-93), the substance is a third category in level inorganic Judaipin.


[Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. facial boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, zhu tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. Heat toxin accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu wei di huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. Oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang feng Tong Sheng Wan, liushen other medicine.

5. unilateral prescription: silver flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. facial boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin d deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression


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