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Norethindrone

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[Intro]

Norethisterone for a white or almost white crystalline powder; odorless, slightly bitter taste. This product was dissolved in chloroform, slightly soluble in ethanol, slightly soluble in acetone, insoluble in water. : The product of the melting point (Appendix Ⅵ C) melting point is 202 ~ 208 ℃.


norethindrone Introduction

Pinyin: Quenuotong
English name: Norethisterone
formula; C20H26O2
the page number: two of the 2000 edition of -420
C20H26O2 298.43
This product is 17β-hydroxy -19 - demethyl-17α-progesterone steroid 4 - en -20 - acetylene -3 - ketone. Dry goods calculation, including
C20H26O2 should be 97.0% to 102.0%.
【Properties】 This product is white or almost white crystalline powder; odorless, slightly bitter taste.


This product is dissolved in chloroform, slightly soluble in ethanol, slightly soluble in acetone, insoluble in water.The melting point melting point of this product (Appendix Ⅵ C)
202 ~ 208 ℃.
Specific rotation to take this product, accurately weighed, add dissolved in chloroform and quantitative dilution made solution containing about 10mg per 1ml
according to the law determination (Appendix VI. E) Specific rotation -22 ° to -28 °.
[differential] (1) to remove the goods about 10mg plus alcohol 1ml dissolved, add silver nitrate test solution 5 ~ 6 drops, meaning the
into a white precipitate.
(2) The product of the infrared light absorption map should be in control of the spectrum (spectral set of 258).
[check] other steroids to take this product, add chloroform made into a solution containing 10mg per 1ml, as the test sample dissolved
liquid; the precise amount of amount of chloroform was diluted into a solution containing 0.20mg per 1ml, as a control solution. according to thin layer colorspectroscopy (Appendix Ⅴ B)
test, learn the two solutions 5μl, respectively, point at the same silica gel G TLC plate to chlorine
imitation - methanol (98:2) as the agent, started to dry, dried at 105 ℃ for 10 minutes, let cool, sprayed with sulfuric acid - B
alcohol (1:1), heated at 100 ℃ for 5 minutes, let cool, set the uv light (365nm) to view. The test solution, such as significant
impurity spots, the fluorescence intensity compared with the main spots of the control solution, not stronger.
loss on drying to remove the goods, dried at 105 ℃ to constant weight, weight loss reduction should not exceed 0.5% (Appendix VIII of L).
[Content determination of high-performance liquid chromatography (Appendix V D)] according to determination.
chromatographic conditions and the system suitability test octadecylsilane bonded silica as a filler; acetonitrile - water (65:35) as mobile phase;
detection wavelength is 244nm. Calculation of the number of theoretical plates norethindrone peak should not be less than 1500, the of norethindrone peak and the internal standard substance peak separation and principal component peak
after an impurity peak and the principal component peaks should be required.
preparation of internal standard solution to take progesterone, about 25mg, accurately weighed, set 25ml volumetric flask, dissolved in methanol and dilute to volume, shaken, that is, too.
determination of France to take norethisterone reference substance is about 25mg, accurately weighed, set 25ml volumetric flask, dissolved in methanol and dilute to volume, shake, precision
measure 3ml of this solution, 2ml and the internal standard solution set 10ml volumetric flask, add methanol diluted to the mark, shake, take 20μl into the liquid chromatograph, record the chromatograms; other goods from the amount the same method for the determination. Internal standard method with peak area calculation, that is, too.
[category] progesterone drugs.
function and the role of] progesterone drugs. Mainly to promote and maintain the early period of pregnancy and during pregnancy uterus change, similar to megestrol acetate, but good hemostatic effect.
for functional uterine bleeding disorders, dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation, endometriosis and infertility, etc.; drugs in combination with estrogen, can be used as contraceptives.
[Usage and dosage] dysfunctional uterine bleeding: 2.5mg per every 8 hours (severe, can be changed to 3 hours) after the dose is gradually decreasing, generally on the 3rd decremented by 1 times, each time decreasing the amount of not more than 1/2 of the original dose, up to maintain the amount of 2.5mg once daily, and even served on the 20th; or after the bloodshed to stop, daily service ethinyl estradiol 0.05mg or b the end of phenol 1mg, a total of 20.
treatment of dysmenorrhea, endometriosis: 2.5mg per day 1, since the period on the 5th, a total on the 20th.
infertility treatment: This product is 2.5mg and ethinyl estradiol O. 05mg once daily, serving a total of 20, even for 3 months.
[side effects and toxicity] a few patients after taking the drug caused elevated Valley, an alanine aminotransferase. [Storage] Sealed, in dark.
[Note] the liver, nephritis patients and lactating hanged. Does not apply to the fetus. Long-term large doses, mild virilization.
[agents] (1) norethisterone tablets (Fukang tablets): Each tablet contains 2.5mg, bmg (2) norethisterone Dripping pills
(3) compound norethisterone tablets (4) the compound norethindrone film by

amount of usage

1. used as a short-acting oral contraceptive medicine

compound norethisterone tablets, film or paper, as well as oral contraceptive pills (film) from the menstrual cycle on the 5th to begin serving

norethindrone


drug, a day after dinner, taking appropriate (night shift by breakfast after the service), and even served on the 22nd. without interruption, served their periods on the 5th of continued medication.

2. for visiting relatives contraceptives

visit relatives contraceptive pills, start taking in cohabitation that night, every night a pill (5mg) cohabitation within 10 days, and even served 10 pills; living together for two weeks, and even served 14 pills; more than half of those who served for 14 pills and then change the service of short-acting oral contraceptives, until the end of visiting relatives.

3 treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding

serving a norethindrone tablets, film or paper (2.5mg) every 8 hours (three hours in the case of emergency medication an be changed after the bleeding significantly reduced 1 8 hours), and then gradually reduce, until a daily maintenance dose of 1, and even served on the 20th; also be in the bloodshed to stop, daily service ethinyl estradiol 0.05mg or diethylstilbestrol 1mg total on the 20th.

4. infertility

oral norethisterone 2.5mg and ethinyl estradiol 0.05mg once daily, and even served on the 20th, a total of three cycles. 5 Dysmenorrhea, endometriosis: starting menstrual 5-7, daily oral administration of 1 2.5mg, and even served on the 20th.

Note

few women may have nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness and other types of early reaction and irregular bleeding, amenorrhea, breast swelling, rash, etc., generally < div>

ethinyl estradiol


away.
Note: a breast-feeding women after taking the drug may milk to reduce it should be taken at six months postpartum; abortion should menstrual period on the 5th start medication should be used as a contraceptive. Two missed or late service when contraception fails, it must daily take medication regularly; missed the missed dose within 24 hours.
3 during the medication may be the occurrence of breakthrough bleeding, daily service ethinyl estradiol 0.005 ~ 0.015mg; generally will be reduced by the amount of menstrual migraine short phenomenon, having to deal with. medication after 22, the general 3 to 4 day period; yet to see such as the 7th day of menstruation, should start taking a drug. Consecutive two to three months amenorrhea, to the withdrawal; may also be considered plus service ethinyl estradiol daily 0.005 to 0.01mg. liver disease, nephritis, patients with breast lumps hanged.
uterine fibroids, hypertension and liver, kidney disease history with caution. 6. Contraceptive services, women who smoke concurrent cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) than non-smokers, women taking birth control pills to stop smoking or smoking women (especially over the age of 35 to 40 years of age) should not be taking birth control pills.

drugs advantages

taking birth control pills for contraception, is a relatively safe and effective contraceptive methods can greatly reduce the possibility of pregnancy. Used in normal, healthy women of lactation. contraceptives advantages First, the success rate is relatively high, stick with the 99% contraceptive prevalence rate. With

uterus


reversible after discontinuation pregnant again, is to have some therapeutic effect, and four emergency morning-after pill, can be done for emergency contraception.
health effects: regular menstrual cycle. Reduce menstrual blood. Less or no dysmenorrhea. smooth skin. Reduction in breast cancer. ovarian and endometrial cancer risk. Reduce the chance of pelvic inflammatory disease. Fewer uterine cysts. Can help to maintain the ability to conceive. Stronger bones. Reduce menstrual cycles with heavy bleeding. Reduce iron deficiency anemia. To prevent pregnancy.

side effects

1, the early response. Types of early reaction is more common, accounting for 50% of the number of medication. The signs and symptoms were first re-light, then gradually disappeared, possibly related to the body gradually adapt. The small number of people taking early mild types of early reaction, such as nausea, dizziness, weakness, loss of appetite, fatigue, vomiting. Often taking 1-2 Zhou Fasheng. Temporary excess, causes and levels of estrogen cause body water and sodium retention, gastrointestinal disorders related to, general

gastrointestinal


insist on taking two to three months, the reaction may disappear naturally or reduce the medication time at night before going to sleep can make day was mild. reaction heavier, vitamin B6, 20 mg each, 3 times a day. Still no response, consider replacing the pill, choose less estrogen content of drugs.
2, leucorrhea. Mostly caused by the long-acting oral norethisterone. Medicines estrogen content is high, too much estrogen endocervical secretory cells to secrete strong and cause increased vaginal discharge.
3, breast tenderness. The reason is that the estrogen stimulation of the breast.
4, menstrual disorders. Including: 1 reduced or amenorrhea. After taking norethisterone, often this is due to drugs that inhibit ovulation, ovarian secretion of estrogen and

progesterone


hormone less drugs containing estrogen and fewer uterine intima can not be normal growth, thin endometrium, it is by the reduction, or even menopause. By the reduction had no effect on health. If the medication should be discontinued in favor of other measures of contraception by two consecutive stop, most are free to return to normal. medication of menopause, often taking long-acting contraceptives available progesterone-type drugs such as medroxyprogesterone acetate or norethindrone, or injections of progesterone, can also be used short-acting contraceptives on the 2nd night serving two, and even served 5 to 6 days. Generally within a week after stopping menstrual cramps.
② breakthrough bleeding. Such as medication during hemorrhage, occurred leakage medication. A few people, although not leak medication or vaginal bleeding. Occurred in the first half of the menstrual cycle may be the lack of estrogen can add services ethinyl estradiol 0.005 ~ 0.015mg, once a day until served by 22. In case of the latter half of the menstrual cycle, lack of progesterone, plus take the short-acting contraceptive pills on the 1st or the 2nd one until served by 22. Large amount of bleeding such as menstrual cramps, menstrual cramps can handle immediate withdrawal, the withdrawal of the first five days next month to begin serving drug.
③ by the amount of menstruation. Often occurs in the service of long-acting oral norethisterone, when available hemostatic bleeding more, if necessary, the injection of testosterone propionate. Menstrual flow continues to increase, continuous bleeding for more than three months, you should stop taking long-acting oral norethisterone, change clothes a short-acting drugs. Application of long-acting injection the norethindrone

testosterone propionate


, you can often irregular menstrual periods, such as menstruation, by the amount of cycles, irregular bleeding or amenorrhea, More common in the 3 months before treatment. If we can insist on using the future will gradually return to normal. In case of bleeding can add services ethinyl estradiol, and even clothes for three days.
5, weight gain. May be estrogen cause sodium retention, progesterone synthesis and metabolism (increased progesterone promote protein assimilation), so that some women weight gain. Generally do not need treatment, oral diuretics, or be a low-salt diet, stopping when necessary.
6, pigmentation. After taking a few people in the forehead and facial skin pigmentation, estrogen, progesterone results, generally more natural recovery after drug withdrawal.

prohibits the use of ten women

In general, all the health of married women of childbearing age can be used in general, all physical health of married women of childbearing age can be used acetylene the Connaught

liver cells


ketone, but in the following situations, women should not use oral norethisterone:
1, with acute and chronic hepatitis and nephritis women should not take it. Into the body norethindrone is metabolized in the liver and excreted by the kidneys, if you suffer from acute and chronic hepatitis and nephritis women use will increase the burden on the liver, kidney.
2, suffering from heart disease or heart function of poor people can not use. Norethisterone in estrogen can make the body of water, sodium and other substances retention will increase the burden on the heart.
3, the women have high blood pressure should not be used. Few women after treatment causes high blood pressure.
4, have diabetes and family history of diabetes who are unfit for use. Taking norethindrone, may make the blood sugar is mildly elevated, so that latent diabetes to become dominant, it will have adverse impact on women with diabetes.
5, the women of hyperthyroidism, there is no cure, it is best not to use norethindrone.
6, benign breast tumor, uterine fibroids, as well as patients with various malignant tumors should not be used in order to avoid adverse effects on the tumor.
7, past or present disease with vascular thrombosis (such as cerebral thrombosis, myocardial infarction, vasculitis, etc.) who can not be used. Norethisterone in estrogen the,

plasma protein


may increase blood coagulation, will aggravate the condition of cardiovascular disease.
8, chronic headache, particularly migraine and vascular headache women should not be used, otherwise it will aggravate the symptoms.
9, After a few months past, it is best not. Long-term use the norethindrone allows endometrium was shrinking, will reduce menstrual flow.
10, lactating women should not be used. The norethindrone allows to reduce the secretion of milk, and reduce the quality of the milk, but also into the milk, have a negative impact on breast-feeding children, lactating women should not be used.

misunderstanding

Myth one: to make you fat. Studies have shown that the likelihood of medication women weight gain and weight loss comparable. Even if it is on the fat of the signs, generally only the beginning of medication within the first month, the body time to adapt to the pharmaceutical appear. A month later there is still fat phenomenon, you can

norethindrone contraceptive effect


on the need to change a norethindrone a, which is another hormone pharmaceutical.
Myth: If you kept the drug one week, but directly continuous taking norethindrone, hazardous to health. strange to say, but the withdrawal weeks is indeed dispensable. In the early days, norethindrone is modeled on the menstrual cycle, because the manufacturers have female friends still want to have the medication during the 28-day cycle. This means that you can safely take drugs, rather than monthly experiencing a "bleeding", but remember that often go to GP for a check.
Myth: norethisterone there are many side effects such as nausea and headache. Some norethindrone side effects (but need to know, is the third drug toxicity), but most women do not have such a reaction. If you're so upset, then please go to the doctor, try to change a hormone agents.
Myth: take a double dose will receive a double effect. Double a dose that does not give you double protection. However, if you miss a dose (47 percent of women will) you can fill in less than 12 hours. If you exceed 12 hours, going to the GP for a check. If the drug used properly, the efficiency is 99%.

meaning

control the population of a direct measure of birth control, including contraception and abortion. Contraceptive history almost as old as human history. norethindrone the emergence of contact disintegration of traditional marriage, and fertility among women can be freed from the suffering of birth, access to a higher level of sexual freedom. But at the same time, non-marital relationships than ever increased, posed a serious challenge to the social ethics.

can lead to drug failure easy-to-use oral short-acting norethisterone contraceptive prevalence rate higher, has become one of the main methods of contraception in life. Some drugs can make the mouth

norethindrone menstrual
clothing norethindrone failure, norethindrone can not be with the following drugs with the service:
★ rifampicin: the main component of the rifampicin can make oral norethisterone metabolism speed up and reduce the concentration of drug in the blood, there may be endometrial part off spotting or leaching Lek do at the same time reduce the efficacy of norethindrone matter Erzhi contraceptive failure.
★ antibiotics: administration of antibiotics can inhibit intestinal bacterial populations, thus affecting the norethindrone large intestinal absorption, blood concentrations of norethindrone decline.
★ antiepileptic drugs: mainly including phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, flutter epilepsy ketone and so on. In dexamethasone women with epilepsy taking these drugs


can encourage drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver cells increased and accelerated the destruction of oral norethisterone , but also increase the rate of progesterone combination, so that the free drug concentration is greatly reduced, resulting in contraceptive failure.
enzymes promote the agent: of Miltown and other sedative hypnotics, Phenylbutazone, rheumatoid arthritis drug, enzymatic role of these drugs can promote the activity of liver microsomal enzyme catalyzed the metabolism of drugs to accelerate the metabolism of oral norethisterone reduce the contraceptive effect. Have to use sleeping pills can be used stability instead.
★ hormone: such as prednisone, dexamethasone, etc., while taking norethindrone can delay the metabolism of corticosteroids, side effects has greatly increased.
In addition, during the administration of oral norethisterone, if regular drinking may also increase its metabolism so that the declining role of Erzhi pregnant. Long-term smokers may also reduce the effect of oral norethisterone.

incompatible drugs oral norethisterone contraception, simple and easy. according to the report, 56 million women in the world using this method of contraception. However, less well known is that

penicillin


clothing norethindrone women taking a particular drug can still lead to contraceptive failure. Stability shall be guilty of one of them. The drug belongs to the liver microsomal enzyme inducing agents, oral norethisterone can speed up the metabolism in the body, thereby reducing its contraceptive effect. zhang taking a longer-term stability to Zhumian, undoubtedly interfere with norethindrone the role.
In addition to stability, in recent years, it was discovered that the drug can interfere with oral norethisterone role There are many, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, Librium, etc., can affect service the norethindrone women's contraceptive effect. In addition, longer-term use of penicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and anti-TB drugs rifampin, may also affect the contraceptive effectiveness.
The reason is: Under normal circumstances, oral norethisterone by means of intestinal bacteria release a hydrolase, reabsorption in the enterohepatic circulation. Once the blocking of this enterohepatic circulation, it could lead to contraceptive failure. The antimicrobial agents are this role.
Therefore, women of childbearing age during the oral norethindrone, if the sick should be long-term use of it drug the doctor taking norethindrone for doctors. Stop oral norethisterone, and safer to change other effective methods of contraception.

check

other steroids of this product, add chloroform made containing 10mg per 1ml of the solution, as the test solution; precision to measure the amount of chloroform diluted into each

silicone
1ml containing 0.20mg of solution as a control solution. thin layer chromatography (Appendix Ⅴ B) test, to learn of the two solutions 5μl point in the same silica gel G plate with chloroform - methanol (98:2) as the agent, started to dry. dried at 105 ℃ for 10 minutes, let cool, and sprayed with sulfuric acid - ethanol (1:1), heated at 100 ℃ for 5 minutes, let cool, home to view under uv light (365nm). The test solution, such as significant impurity spots, the fluorescence intensity of the main spots of the control solution, not stronger. loss on drying of this product, dried at 105 ℃ to constant weight, less weight loss should not exceed 0.5% (Appendix Ⅷ L).

determination of the determination of

according to high performance liquid chromatography (Appendix V D). Chromatographic conditions and the system suitability test octadecylsilane bonded silica as a filler; acetonitrile - water (65:35) as mobile phase; detection wavelength was 244nm. Number of theoretical plates norethindrone peak calculation should be not less than 1,500 norethindrone peak within

chromatograph chart


standard substance peaks and principal component peaks after a impurity peak and the principal component peaks should be specified. The internal standard solution preparation to take progesterone about 25mg, accurately weighed given set 25ml volumetric flask, dissolved in methanol and dilute to the mark, shake well, that was.
determination of France to take norethisterone reference substance is about 25mg, accurately weighed given set 25ml volumetric flask, dissolved in methanol and dilute to the mark, shake, the precise amount of this solution and the internal standard solution 2ml 3ml set 10ml volumetric flask, add methanol diluted to the mark, shake, take 20μl into the liquid chromatograph, record the chromatograms; other goods from the amount determined with the method. Internal standard method with peak area calculation, that is, too.

determination method

method:
Determination of norethisterone's - High Performance liquid chromatography
range of applications:
this method using high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of the content of norethindrone.
This method is applicable to norethindrone.
principle of the method:
the test made of the methanol solution of internal standard solution into the liquid chromatograph chromatography, uv absorption detector, detection at a wavelength of 244nm at norethindrone (C20H26O2) and internal standard progesterone absorption value calculated its content.
Reagents:
1. methanol
2. water
equipment:
1. instrument
1.1 high performance liquid chromatography
1.2 column
octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as a filler, the number of theoretical plates calculated norgestrel peak should be not less than 1500.
1.3 uv absorption detector
2. chromatographic conditions
2.1 mobile phase: methanol + water = 65 +35
2.2 detection wavelength: 244nm
2.3 column temperature: room temperature
preparation of test specimens:
1. Weigh the test sample
precision to take this product of about 25mg.Preparation of
2. reference solution of
precision check amount, plus the mobile phase and diluted into a solution.
3. preparation of internal standard solution
take progestin 25mg, set 25mL volumetric flask, dissolved in methanol and dilute to volume, shaken, that is, too.
4. for the preparation of the test solution
the test in a 25mL volumetric flask, dissolved in methanol and diluted to the mark, shake well for the test solution.
Note: "Precision Weigh" means to check the weight should be accurate to one thousandth of the weight to be taken. "Precise amount" means to measure the accuracy of the volume should meet the accuracy requirements of national standards for the volume pipettes.
steps:the
precision to draw the above test solution 2mL and the internal standard solution 3mL set 10mL volumetric flask, add methanol diluted to the mark, shake, take 20μL injected into the liquid chromatograph, record the chromatograms, uv absorption detector at the wavelength of 244nm at the determination of the value of the norethindrone and the subject of absorption peak area calculation, that was the internal standard method. Another norethindrone reference solution, the same method for the determination.
References:
pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China pharmacopoeia commission Code, chemical Industry Press, 2005, two, p358.


[Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. Swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. facial boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, zhu tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. heat toxin accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu wei di huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang feng Tong Sheng Wan, liushen other medicine.

5. unilateral prescription: silver flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. facial boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. Swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. Swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) Drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin d deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression

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