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Spinel



   

[Intro]

Spinel is composed of Mg-Al oxide minerals, because it contains the elements of magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, etc., they can be divided into a variety, such as aluminum spinel, iron spinel, zinc spinel manganese tip spar, chrome spinel. Because it contains different elements, different spinel can have different colors, such as between the magnesium spinel in red, blue, green, brown or colorless; zinc spinel was dark green; iron spinel black and so on. spinel was a hard, glassy octahedral particles and block. They appear in igneous rocks, granitic pegmatite, and metamorphic limestone. Some transparent and beautiful colors of spinel can be used as gemstones, some iron magnetic material. Use artificial means to create more than 200 spinel varieties.


Introduction spinel (Spinel)

spinel chemical molecular structure



chemical formula is (Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn) (Al, Cr, Fe) 2O4
components in complex, including aluminum spinel and chrome spinel subfamily. iron spinel subfamily is opaque magnetite, hematite. Most of the spinel is spinel subfamily, including Mg2 + and Fe2 + can be mixed.
crystal system: the case of equiaxed
crystal habit: often has octahedral crystal shape, sometimes octahedron and rhombic dodecahedron, cube into poly shape
cleavage: no cleavage
Fracture: conchoidal fracture
Luster: glassy luster to Asia diamond gloss
Transparency: transparent to opaque
refractive index: 1.718, with trace elements and change the maximum to 2.000 unparalleled refraction
gloss: body of homogeneous, isotropic
Dispersion: 0.020 medium dispersion
absorption spectrum: red spinel color caused by chromium, with a typical spectrum in the red region 686nm, 675nm visible two main absorption line, and sometimes may be associated with other absorption lines, for a long time up to 8 Green Zone and purple District general absorption; blue spinel because of the existence of low-cost Fe, and shows the complex spectrum of
color: color and its rich, red, blue, green, purple, orange, orange, black
luminance: red or pink spinel in the long, dark red fluorescence under short wave; blue because Fe, fluorescent
Pleochroism: None
inclusion: often with negative crystal package was spinel octahedron-shaped columnar zircon and apatite solid inclusions and more gas liquid or octahedral body. Sometimes zircon surrounding the discoid stress cracks.
the shape of cut: no optical effect of the gem is generally ground into a carved face
special optical effect: the the Starlight effect (radiance or six shot), color effects. Relatively few
Hardness: 8
Density: 3.60 (+0.10, -0.03) g/cm
Origin: Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand and China, Henan, Hebei, Fujian, Xinjiang, yunnan
the main synthesis methods: flame melting method
synthetic spinel identification methods: RI-1.727 (single refraction, relatively stable) blue spinel with typical cobalt spectrum, three strong absorption bands in the red, orange, green zone, by cobalt red color caused by blue spinel filter, the internal bending visible growth lines, bubbles form was the umbrella, stretched like or different shape.
spinel family of minerals formed in the molten magma intrusion in nature formed by contact metamorphism of impure limestone or dolomite. Some appear in the Al-rich magmatic rocks. Gem spinel is mainly magnesium aluminate spinel is a Mg-Al oxides. The crystal form of the octahedron and the octahedron and rhombic dodecahedron poly shape. Color, colorful, colorless, pink, red, purple, light purple, blue, purple, blue, yellow, brown. Varieties of spinel is divided in accordance with the color, red, orange, violet, blue spinel. Shiny, transparent glass. Conchoidal fracture. Red fluorescent pink and red spinel in the long and short-wave UV. Feature

spinel


spinel with similar gemstones, synthetic spinel difference. Red spinel and ruby ​​are very similar, the difference is: ruby ​​dichroism, uneven color, silk-like inclusions. spinel is a homogeneous body, exactly the same color, color uniformity, solid inclusions of the octahedron.
blue, gray and blue, blue, purple, green spinel and sapphire are easily mixed, the difference is: sapphire dichroism ribbon straight, silk-like inclusions and the twin plane. The two gems, density, refractive index, polarized light are different.
synthetic spinel color rich and gaudy, homogeneous inclusions small, occasionally curved growth lines, high refractive index is 1.727. Red synthetic spinel and more fake ruby ​​red, blue spinel mostly brilliant blue. Natural spinel difference according to the characteristics of the internal inclusions and synthetic spinel.

Maintenance

simple conservation methods
1. thorough cleaning France: warm water after a small bowl or cup dress Imperial keep the salt dissolved, each 10 grams per soak for 24 hours. Finally, a soft, lint-free cloth for drying can. yu Shou salt cleaning spinel impact of manual processing, make manual processing part of the show. Does not affect the natural part. The occurrence of every month to keep salt cleaning spinel, can eliminate the ring on the dead skin tissue removed from the fungal growth, prevention of skin diseases
2 cold water method with a small bowl or cup to keep the Royal salt in a bowl, spinel immersed in water for about 30 minutes, and then use a small brush, in the spinel gently scrub around, waving while in the water, and drying can be out with a paper towel.
quick cleaning method: to buy a little imperial keep salt, spar buried purification. Each laying takes 24 hours, so there is a drawback is that if manual processing manual processing of the the spinel Royal to keep the salt will make part of the show. So if manual processing of spinel yu Shou salt.

legend · spinel sparse, and now more than 5ct good texture rare. But there had been some history of the famous ruby, now appears to be spinel, a larger weight. spinel gemstone treasures, weighing more than 100ct.
· the most famous and legendary course ought to be called the " Timur ruby Timur by Ruben spinel re-361ct (there is information that 352.5 ct), now in the possession of India exhibition room at Buckingham Palace.
Since 1612, this renowned city is known as the East world tribute "attributable to the unparalleled light mountain (Kohinoor) diamond has and set in the saddle. The gem of unknown origin, there was speculation from Afghanistan. Period of time has been decorated in the Mughal dynasty's most famous peacock throne. Some inscriptions. Last inscription: " which wang Wang Sudan · Shaxi Bu · Qilang (Sulta Sahib Qiran) 2.5 ruby ​​jewelry ten thousand, 1153 years from the Mughal jewelry get this place (Persian). "inscription corresponds to the year 1740. 1739 satisfied the first Seoul Shah looted the Mughal dynasty treasures back to the Persian Isfahan, this place is referring to Isfahan.
· 6 lines of inscription, records had to have its master. They are:
Akbar Shah (Akbar Shah) 1021 (AD 1612)
check Hanjie Shah (Jahargir Shah,)
Shaxi Bu · Qilang · Dani (Sahib Qiran Sani) 1038 (1628 AD)
Alaska Mujie Shah (Alamgir Shah,) 1070 (AD 1659)
Bagh Shah · Ge Hazi Mohammed Farouk West Asia 1125 (AD 1713)
Amad · Shah - By · Durao 1168 (AD 1754)
Sultan Sha Xibu · qi lang (1336-1405) Muslim Timur's call.
He is the Mongols in 1398, he conquered Delhi, seized the throne of Samarkand. After his death, the precious stones into the hands of his successor m Shah Rukh. The latter ruled for nearly 40 years, by his son Midza Wu Luge Berg (1394-1449) took over, he reigned only two years, is the son of murder. This gem on from generation to generation to survive.
· later dynastic change, some have left his name in the gemstone.
· Mughal dynasty after the conquest, Timur ruby and many other treasures snatched Persia, to become monarch the subsections Seoul Shah pet. A Persian gem Shah Sujia. Lahore rulers Lan Jide Singh saved his Timur ruby, bright mountain of diamonds and other treasures all to the hands of Manmohan Singh. The British from the hands of his successor, du Lipu Singh, these treasure these gems arrived in the UK, the attention on the "bright mountain" diamond, the Timur ruby ​​and other jewels are cold. "Bright Mountain" when it was exhibited in 1851, Timur ruby is still on the shelf, its name was not included in the directory.

evaluation and purchase

spinel evaluation and purchase. Color, transparency, weight is the basis for the evaluation and selection of spinel. spinel a variety of colors, usually contains more inclusions, showing the layered distribution transparency. Red spinel is the most popular, bright red, high transparency, weight is its high quality goods. Starlight effect of the spinel is also more expensive. Crimson, scarlet, brilliant blue, green spinel.

brilliant blue spinel



"Timur Ruby"


spinel since ancient times precious stones. Due to its beautiful and rare, it is also the world's most fascinating one of the gems. Because it has a beautiful color, has long been mistaken for a ruby. Currently the world's most legendary, most charming heavy 361 kt "Timur Ruby" (Timur Ruby) and 1660 set the wang Wangguan of the British Empire countries on weight of about 170 carat black prince ruby "(Black Prince's ruby ) identified until modern times they are red spinel. 1415 battle of Agincourt (1415 King Henry V at Agincourt village, in northern France hit troops several times in one's own side of the French army, known as Agincourt), the helmet of King Henry V inlaid with precious stones of the "Black prince Ruby" (the black Prince's ruby), French general, waving his tomahawk slash king's head, a miracle happened, the Tomahawk is just spinel blocking, save Henry V lives, even more surprising is that this almost nobody believes may win the war, it has also miraculously win. The spinel name of the source, the current lack of sufficient evidence. latin "Spinells," Spina, "literally means" thorn ", reminiscent of the sharp edges and corners of the spinel crystals. spinel is the world's most fascinating one of the gems, because of its beautiful red, in the past been mistaken for a ruby. The English name of spinel Spinel, from the Greek text "Spark", meaning red or orange natural crystal. Another argument that may come from the latin word "Spinella", meaning "thorns".
the world's most charming, the most famous and legendary red spinel "Timur Ruby". Gem weighing 361 karats, produced in Afghanistan, the color is dark red, no cut, only natural polishing the surface, almost no sheen, and thus more showing a gem of natural beauty. Some gem known as the Oriental world tribute. Etched in the gems on the owner's mark, we can know that the gem had fell to the hands of the tartar conqueror. Timur conquered Delhi in 1398, this gem. In 1612, precious stones belonging to the British royal family. In 1851, with the gem and the other a few grains of smaller gems on display in the World Exhibition, and as a "great spinel ruby" recorded in the official list. Later it had been given to queen Victoria , now preserved in London, England Buckingham palace exhibition hall in India. ruby ​​top sub used in the Qing dynasty royal knighted and a product of a high official hat, almost all made with red spinel has not yet seen the real ruby products the world's largest, most beautiful red-velvet color spinel, weight 398.72 kt., 1676 russian special envoy was ordered in China beijing 2672 gold rubles to buy existing in Moscow, Russia diamond library. spinel English name for Spinel, the meaning is crystal sharp corners. it is a Mg-Al oxides, spinel and corundum contact variety of spinel color, red, pink, purple, colorless, blue , green spinel gem is almost transparent magnesium spinel.

normal spinel

compared to the layered compound LiCoO and LiNiO, spinel stone LiMnO price and environmental protection advantages, become the most potential for development of a lithium-ion battery cathode materials, spinel LiMnO battery charge and discharge cycle capacity loss attributed to the decomposition of organic electrolyte and the Jahn- teller effect caused by structural damage.
currently trying to modified spinel LiMnO material composition, the average oxidation state of Mn in the material is maintained at slightly below 3.5, thereby suppressing the Jahn-Teller distortions in order to slow down the spinel structure damage. One of the modified method that is doped with some transition metal ions such as Co, Cr, Ni, Fe and Ti ions to replace part of Mn in the material. In this paper, using the traditional method of solid phase synthesis of the standard spinel LiMnO by electrochemical methods (constant current charge and discharge, coulometric titration, cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance method, etc.) and XRD, X, SEM and other analysis tools thermodynamic properties of charge-discharge performance and cycle performance and its mechanism. preparation of several metal cations with different valences (Ni, Cr, V, Mo) modified four yuan the spinel LiMMnO intercalation compound as cathode material for lithium secondary battery, Li/LiMMnO battery electrochemistry and x ray diffraction studies. The work of the text, but also by low temperature sol-gel method was successfully prepared a new 3V a chrome spinel materials modified LiO-yMnO (y = 4) cationic defect spinel phase of its The structure and electrochemical properties of a preliminary study. Keywords: lithium manganese spinel cathode materials, lithium-ion battery, doped with transition metal ions.
normal spinel cheap, nontoxic, and has a larger discharge capacity was considered to replace the expensive, toxic lithium-ion battery cathode LiCoO_2 best candidate materials for one. LiMn_2O_4 capacity fading of restricting the commercialization bottleneck. doping can effectively improve the electrochemical performance of the LiMn_2O_4. This paper reviewed on the basis of the progress of the cathode material of lithium-ion batteries at home and abroad LiMn_2O_4, to Li_2CO_3 and EMD as the main raw material by solid state reaction method of Mg/F-doped lithium manganese oxide spinel, and applied to power polymer lithium-ion Battery (PLIB), combined with a means of XRD, SEM and electrochemical performance testing, and study their structure and electrochemical performance and the relationship between the two. The study found that 750 ℃ ​​insulation 20h can be prepared with uniform cubic structure and size of the particles with the wrong pile and microstructure characteristics of the conductive agent acetylene black in the active material particles bypass the lithium-manganese spinel oxide. The electrochemical test results, Mg-doped spinel LiMn_2O_4 good cycling characteristics. 0.5C charge and discharge rate, LiMn_ (1.92) Mg (0.08) O_4 first discharge capacity of about 90mAh/g (vs.Lj), compared with LiMn_2O_4 of 102mAh/g low, but the cycle performance is significantly improved: after 300 cycles, the capacity appreciable attenuation occurs.

spinel


theoretical composition (Next.%): MgO 28.2, Al2O3, 71.8. Isomorphism is very common. Mg2 often by Fe2, Zn2, Mn2 class quality replaced with like, Mg-Fe, Mg-Zn can form completely isomorphous like a series of end-member mineral called magnesium spinel MgAl2O4 and iron spinel of FeAl2O4 The zinc spinel of ZnAl2O4. The Al3 then often replaced by Cr3, Fe3, V3; of Al-Cr for a complete class of quality like the series, and the second end member, respectively, for magnesium spinel MgAl2O4 and magnesium chromite MgCr2O4. The Al3 be of Fe3, the V3 instead of more limited. Mn class quality like instead of up to 1%; 0.5% of Ti substitution. Magnetite and ilmenite spar for a continuous solid solution, is 2Fe3 = of Ti4 of Fe2 instead of the formation of.

structure and form

spinel


equiaxed, a0 = 0.8103nm (synthetic magnesium spinel) ; Z = 8.
natural magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) has a unique crystal structure is called spinel structure. The structure is a cubic crystal, the face-centered cubic lattice. The spinel structure can be regarded as the oxygen ions in the formation of cubic closest packing by X ions occupy 64 tetrahedral voids of 1/8, 8 A site Y ions occupy 32 octahedral voids of 1/2 16 B sites. The resulting spinel unit cell of the general formula for X8Y16O32 after simple often writing XY2O4 the [1 5].
most of the spinel structure compounds, A and B, bit-ion compounds were lower than 2:3. In more than 100 kinds of spinel structure compounds, in addition to the foreign bid was the most common 2:3 4:2, the structure of inverse spinel structure, such as TiMg2O4, TiZn2O4, TiMn2O4. Anti-structure can be regarded as eight ion and 16 ion B 8 mutual empathy, 8 Y2 + ions into the tetrahedral interstitial (A), while the remaining eight Y2 + ion and 8 X4 + ion compound to occupy the B sites under normal circumstances octahedral. In addition to the extreme positive and negative, may also have mixed intermediate state distribution. Available so that anti-distribution rate α quantitative expression of the X-ion accounted for the scores on the octahedron, which a variety of spinel structure formula expansion as follows:
is type: (X) tetrahedral [Y2] octahedron O4, α = 0;
trans: (Y) tetrahedral [X-, Y] octahedral body O4, α = 1;
the mixed

ruby spinel


type: (Yα X1-alpha) tetrahedral [Xα, Y2-α] octahedron O4,
0 <α <1.
working with the extent of anti-property and anti-bit performance for compound materials have a greater impact. Common 2:3 and 4:2 electricity than the spinel structure, it seems that the former trend of positive type, the latter increasingly trans. Throughout the entire species, not only a considerable number tends to be mixed, and the range extent can not be determined, but there are a number of varieties does not comply with this law. Factors influence this distribution is extremely complex, the electrostatic energy of ionic bond, ionic radii, covalent bond the spatial distribution of the crystal field. Based on empirical data can be to prioritize the majority of two, three price ion discharge: of Zn2 + and of Cd2 +, Ga2 +, In3 +, of Mn2 +, of Fe3 +, of Mn3 +, of Fe2 +, of Mg2 +, of Cu2 +, of Co2 +, of Ti3 +, of Ni2 +, of Cr3 +. More forward inclined tetrahedral interstitial, on the contrary tend to octahedral interstitial. Cation distribution have a significant impact on the performance of the spinel materials [1,4].

spinel


colorless, red, blue, yellow, pink and so on. Glass luster. cleavage is incomplete. The hardness of 8. The relative density of 3.55 (magnesium spinel), 4.39 (iron spinel), 4.0 to 4.6 (zinc spinel), 4.04 (manganese spinel). Hardness and density increased in the composition Fe3 and Cr3, such as substitution increases. The melting point of 2135 ± 20 ℃.
polarizing microscope: color composition change, colorless, light the gulab color (magnesium spinel), dark green (iron spinel), light gray white (zinc spinel). spinel as a homogeneous body, zinc spinel can be bright exception. refractive index: N = 1.719 (magnesium spinel), 1.835 (iron spinel), 1.78 ~ 1.82 (zinc spinel), 1.92 (manganese spinel).

occurrence and combination

normally produced in the magnesian limestone and granitoids in contact metamorphic belt, and forsterite, diopside and other symbiotic. Of spinel in mafic and ultramafic rocks formed by magma direct crystallization associated with pyroxene, olivine, magnetite, chromite and platinum group minerals. Thermal metamorphic belt in the depleted silicon-aluminum-rich pelites also the formation of spinel, often with cordierite or orthopyroxene symbiosis.
octahedral shape, hardness, spinel law twin crystal characteristics. Similar to the mineral zircon density larger a crystal axis; corundum hardness; the garnet hardness is less than the spinel.

industrial applications

magnesium spinel magnesia refractories combined with the main phase of the spinel refractories. Transparent flawless, beautiful color for the gem.
spinel the twin law (spinel appeared twin law) is a of the twin law. crystal axis octahedral crystal class crystal crystal law is common in crystals of spinel-group minerals. For example, the spinel crystal has three symmetry axes of the twin-axis, the twin plane parallel to the octahedral crystal surface. Was contact with the twins, joints consistent with the twin plane. Double crystal is usually parallel to the joints of development was a flat plate habits.

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spinel function

spinel is a beautiful crystal, according to legend, it can update the body's energy to help people tide over the difficulties and restore vitality. Moreover, it can open chakra, to promote the spiritual rose (the spinel plant of different colors each corresponding to a different chakra.) It is believed that psychologically, the spinel can enhance the positive aspects of the personality to help people succeed and humbly about his achievements.

wear location

near black: different types of spinel according to their respective functions on a different chakra, or appropriate to wear. the spinel

the efficacy

crystal theory believe that addition to the general features, the different colors of spinel is said to also have some other "special effects":
black spinel: the ability to insight into the intrinsic essence of the problem and help people to maintain the stamina to move on. This color has a protective, stable energy function, contribute to the rise in energy.
blue spinel: Turn on and adjust the throat chakra, the promotion of exchanges and psychic ascetic.
brown spinel: purification of the gas field, connecting the physical body, to open the ground round, people down to earth.
colorless spinel: help to promote a higher level of exchange, so that the connectivity of the top round of the material on all the chakra of the etheric body, to strengthen the spirit of vision and perception.
Green Spinel: open and adjust the heart chakra, and to inspire love, compassion and kindness.
orange spinel: Turn on and adjust umbilical round, stimulate creativity, enhance intuition, balance emotions, treatment of infertility.
red spinel: Turn on and adjust the chakra, stimulate the body vitality and strength to stimulate Kundalini.
violet Spinel: Turn on and adjust the crown chakra, the promotion of spiritual development.
yellow spinel: Turn on and adjust the sun gear, the development of intelligence and personal power.

[Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. facial boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, zhu tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. heat toxin accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu wei di huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang feng Tong Sheng Wan, liushen other medicine.

5. unilateral prescription: silver flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. facial boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) Physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin d deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression


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