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Chitooligosaccharides



   

[Intro]

Chitooligosaccharides, also known as shell oligosaccharides, also known as chitin oligosaccharides, the scientific name of beta-1, 4 - oligosaccharides - glucosamine is chitosan by a special enzyme technology processing and get a new product better water-soluble, functional role high biological activity of low molecular weight products. chitosan does not have a higher solubility and easy living organisms absorb and so many unique features, its role is 14 times that of chitosan.


nature Studies have shown: chitooligosaccharides improve immunity, inhibit cancer cell growth, promote the formation of liver and spleen antibody, and promote the absorption of calcium and minerals, the proliferation of Bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and other beneficial human flora, lowering lipids, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood sugar, regulate cholesterol, weight loss, prevention of adult diseases can be applied to other fields of medicine, functional food. why

treatment principles

chitooligosaccharides inhibit the activity of cancer cells to prevent the spread of cancer metastasis? chitosan is positively charged dietary fiber, and cell surface sugar chains are negatively charged, chitosan oligosaccharide to form a dense inclusions in the cell surface, and adsorption of cancer cells. vascular channels, cancer metastasis and cancer cells only under acidic conditions, attached to the vessel wall surface adhesion molecules, in order to transfer to other organs of the body. chitooligosaccharides than the cancer cells more Fuzhu role (Experimental results show: chitooligosaccharides can act directly on the cell surface).

role

to eliminate cancer cells in nutrient supply, it split to reduce, restrict cancer cell division conditions;
Second, to reduce cancer cell metabolism of acidic waste from the other hand, to improve the cancer cells around the acidic environment, and create a cancer cell it difficult to survive and split the transfer of environmental conditions;
Third, to reduce the release of cancer cells to the surrounding enzyme (melting lipase, hydrolase, protease, etc.) to reduce the catalytic and corrosion of the surrounding healthy cells due to a variety of enzymes;
, and around the tumor acid, activated anti-cancer effects in the human body's immune cells, play combined with chemotherapy to improve disease and relieve suffering, to extend the life and role.

chitooligosaccharides and human health

research purposes

life and health depends on healthy cells of our body is composed of 60 trillion to 100 trillion cells When our cells are healthy, our cells are composed of organ function is normal. Conversely, if the cell does not function properly should suffer from a variety of diseases. Cell function is normal on a new discovery of our life sciences: the cells on the sugar chain. The sugar chain structure of the cells is complete, that our cells should be normal. Normal cells in our body to health. Sugar, bio-engineering in our study the gene, the major protein after another in the life sciences to explore the field and last field. Its research to reveal the life of mankind, to control life, about life has opened up a final world. sugar bio-engineering to uncover the mysteries of life, it will form a new concept. We can not control life? Can we live longer? We can about health? Then there are less sick or not sick, we have sick how early rehabilitation? This initiative lies in our own hands. With this initiative, we will be able to control life, we will be able to influence health.

study course

chitin, Japan did walk in the forefront of the world. japanese life is the longest in the world, there are two reasons: First, Japan is an island, it is very like to eat seafood. The second point is that Japan long ago a number of health care products called functional foods to eat our food. 90 years, the second level of chitin called chitosan, also known as chitosan in Japan to become the only allowed by the government can promote the efficacy of functional foods. We say that functional foods, also known as health care products. From the previous international practice does not allow the publicity effect, we note that in 90 years, only the second generation of chitin chitosan can the government allow the publicity effect, indicating that at the time the japanese government to chitosan a high rating. Japan also popularity of chitooligosaccharides. In 1993, the United States held a meeting, this meeting of the title is called "new prospects" of the human disease, it is the first session of the Conference on Glycobiology. Disease and sugar. 95, the detection of the United States food and drug administration (FDA) and the European Common Commonwealth before approving the production of chitin and chitosan of the two products. Our Chinese later than they were a few years, but soon come to the forefront of the world. In 1996, a meeting was held in beijing Diaoyutai State Guesthouse, the first session of the chitin chemistry Conference. At this meeting, we set up a special research group of the chitin series, the group's name is called: Chinese Academy of natural products and sugar group, its code is 1805. This group of Dalian. The group set up after the second year this subject was classified as the "Ninth Five-Year R & D Program of the National science and Technology Commission, included in the national" 863 "program focuses on the development project. "863" Project of deng xiaoping personally signed by such a plan. Our country a lot of high-tech research was included in the "863" plan. They set up the second year of the group, our research group has also been included in the "863" Project, was included in the state "95", "15", the "11th Five-Year Plan. Chinese people is ambition, Chinese scientists say we can not just stop the production of two products in the chitin chitosan, we want to develop the best products, and this is the chitooligosaccharides. chitosan is a 21st century green functional health products, is the only positively charged in the universe of animal cellulose. Can be described as epoch-making revolution to guide health products.

adapt to the crowd

immunocompromised or health groups;
over the age of 45 in the older age groups;
high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, cancer patients;
hepatitis B, hepatitis c patients (adjuvant therapy);
fatty liver patients, a large number of drinkers;
bone and joint ill; poor gastrointestinal function crowd;
Long-term frequent contact with other groups of computers, mobile phones, heavy metal pollution.

information

chitin

chitin molecular weight is very large, do not dissolve, it is difficult to be absorbed. preparation of the person in charge of saying, chitin eat that are not used. Do not dissolve can not be absorbed. the role of

chitosan

chitosan (chitosan polysaccharides) than chitin, there are tens of thousands of its molecules, although insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute acid. We all know that our stomach is an acidic environment, it can be dissolved in the stomach part. Can be dissolved much? Probably can be dissolved by 1% -5%, the remaining 99% -95% of the discharge. From the stomach to the intestine, the intestine is an alkaline environment, it can not be dissolved. Therefore, its role is relatively poor. the

shell oligosaccharide

ordinary chitooligosaccharides molecular weight below 2000, its water-solubility is also very good, its degree of polymerization of 2-15. Its absorption rate is 80% or more, the role can. the

chitooligosaccharides with human future health project launching ceremony

main content

January 23, chitooligosaccharides with human health project launching ceremony cum press conference " Beijing's Great Hall of the People held. Jointly organized by the China Preventive Medicine, future research, the Chinese society of biotechnology sugar biological engineering Committee, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, dalian Institute of chemical Physics Gleick chitooligosaccharides Research Center, jointly organized "Health Times.
CPPCC National Committee, former vice chairman wang Wenyuan, such as leadership and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Academician zhang Shuzheng experts and scholars attended the conference, Deputy Secretary General of Chinese Preventive Medical Association, health care when the newspaper publisher steep pu and famous CCTV host shen force co-chaired the meeting. The activities will be launched in all regions, organizing health knowledge with sugar and biological engineering science lectures, popular science books and publicity material in each tour locations complimentary. Actively promote and advocate the function of balance and human health, the theme of "my balance, my health, promote human health, engineering development.

to participate in the leadership of the start of the project

former vice chairman of CPPCC National Committee wang Wenyuan
Ministry of civil Affairs former vice minister of China's future Research Council president zhang Wenfan
former vice minister of Ministry of Personnel, the old scientific and technological workers in China society Cheng Lianchang
former vice minister of the Ministry of Health, Education, Science, Culture and health Committee of the CPPCC National Committee, deputy director of the Ministry of health National health industry enterprise management Association, sun Longchun
central commission for Discipline Inspection in the Ministry of health of the Discipline Inspection group former head of the China health Care Association, zhang Fenglou
, former director of the State Pharmaceutical administration of qi Moujiaformer Secretary du Yukui
People's Liberation Army health Service
Chinese Preventive Medical Association, vice president and secretary general Cai Jiming
Deputy Secretary-General of the Chinese Medical Association, the Ministry of health after graduating from the Medical Board of Education's Office Deputy Renlu Jun and so on.

to participate in the start of the project, experts and scholars

Chinese Academy of Sciences zhang Shuzheng
vice chairman and secretary general of the Chinese society of Biotechnology, biological and food Chemical, director of the Institute of Tsinghua University, doctoral tutor Professor Cao Zhuan
the China the chitin Professional Committee of the chemical Society, chairman of the Resources and Environmental Sciences of wuhan University doctoral tutor Professor du Yumin
chairman of the Professional Committee of the Chinese society of biotechnology sugar, bio-engineering, Institute of Microbiology, doctoral tutor Professor jin Cheng
biochemistry and Molecular biology of Glycoconjugates Professional Committee chairman, Fudan University School of Medicine phd supervisor gu build a new professor;
vice chairman of the Professional Committee of Chinese society of biotechnology sugar biological Engineering, Fellow of the Ministry of science and Technology Center for biotechnology Development, Department of Biology, Peking University, former deputy director lin Kumho Professor.

chitooligosaccharides and human health project Executive Committee

Executive Committee Director: steep Pu;
Executive Committee, deputy director: Yu-Guang Du, wang Shengtian, wang Yuan billion, the Soviet Union Building
the same time, also set up the project of the Committee of Experts:
honorary chairman of the Committee of Experts: zhang Shuzheng Academy of Sciences
chairman of the Committee of Experts: lin Kumho Professor
Expert Committee members: Professor Song Zhilan li Ling such as Professor wang Shengli associate professor
Professor yu Jiefu Professor Chen Yifu wang Shibo chief physician.

social impact

Glycobiology is the rise in the late 1980s and early 1990s, a frontier of the life sciences. sugar bioengineering Following the genetic engineering, protein engineering, the most striking new areas of biotechnology. Sugar, bio-engineering research, has been widely used in medicine, agriculture, food, chemical, energy, environmental protection and other fields.

development

relationship between sugars and human health is very close. Sugars, proteins and nucleic acids are life and death of the three biological macromolecules. sugar is present the largest biomass in nature, and the sugar chain is the nature of biological repository. oligosaccharides (2-10 monosaccharide polymerization of the sugar chain) is the organism most complex and diverse biological information molecules. oligosaccharides in organisms are ubiquitous in all life processes involved in almost all eukaryotes.

meaning 2007, the 11th Five-Year Plan "of the national economy and social development in the national public nutrition improvement program," the implementation of a Public nutrition Improvement Project NDRC public nutrition improvement the OLIGO project was officially launched. chitooligosaccharides and human future health of the project "as OLIGO part of a project, play a positive role in promoting the development of the cause of China's public health has a profound effect on people's health and meaning.


[Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. facial boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. Drugs for rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, zhu tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. heat toxin accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu wei di huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang feng Tong Sheng Wan, liushen other medicine.

5. unilateral prescription: silver flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. facial boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. Lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. Lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin d deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression


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