Jade, also known as jadeite jade, jade, jadeite, Myanmar jade, jade a color was green (commonly known as Chui) or red (called Fei). Is in the process of geological formation of jadeite, omphacite, and sodium chromium pyroxene reach jade grade polycrystalline aggregates. In addition, in the cartoon characters of the name "Jade".
IntroductionPinyin: fěi cuì
English name of jadeite from the Spanish plcdode jade referred to, which means precious stones worn on the waist.
jade name of the source there are several theories, one from bird feathers of this bird is very bright male plumage red, kingfisher birds (also known as Akabane birds), female feathers green, Kingfisher (also known as green feather birds), collectively known as the emerald industry Fei for the public, tsui mother saying. The ming dynasty, Myanmar jade came to China, dubbed the name "Jade". Another said that the ancient "Jade" refers specifically produced in Hotan jade, jade came to China in order to distinguish Wada Tianlv Yu, called the "Non-Green", and gradually evolved into the "Emerald".
emerald name for a long time, the Northern Song Ouyang Xiu "turn to the life recorded in" volume II contains: "I (Ouyang Xiu) have a jade vase shape is very ancient and sophisticated, may only the plum St Yu, thinking jasper in Yingzhou when, taste to show the bureaucracy. ride horses seal jurisdiction Deng baoji who, the Shinshu toward the old Neichen, insight, said: This treasure device is called emerald. cloud ban treasures are Tibet should be holy library The emerald light a library, so knowledge also. "green jade" jade "can be seen a long time, and no later than in the Northern Song Dynasty, has been regarded as treasures. Perhaps the ancient jade with the same name with this "Jade" is heterogeneous, so Ji Xiaolan said in their childhood, when people "not to jade, as (Note Ouyang Wenzhong, the Country Life: Ouyang Xiu "record" contained in the Complete Works, 126, 127 volumes)
emerald genus pyroxene, monoclinic system, complete cleavage. The main component of sodium silicate (NaAlSi2O6, containing more than 50% of sodium silicate are treated as jade gem mines), produced at low temperature under high pressure generated by metamorphic layer. Often associated with glaucophane, muscovite, lawsonite (dihydrate calcium feldspar), aragonite and quartz. Mohs hardness of between 6.5-7, the proportion of between 3.25-3.35, melting point range of between 900-1000 ° C.
Early jade is not expensive, the value is not high, not paying attention to the world, Ji Xiaolan (1724 - 1805 ) wrote: "Reading Notes of" the severity of the cover material, various fashion when its fixed Beach, remember I childhood, ginseng, coral, lapis lazuli, the price is neither expensive, this day .. ..... yunnan Jade, was not jade, however dry yellow, such as Lam Tin, strong jade ear, this compared with curios, the price is far out of the real jade on men. Han dynasty before the black dragon Buyun the wang Zhengpeng has taken mother and cylinder about 90 cm, and the larger, three of encirclement, the wall thickness of about 15 cm and weighs about 1.5 tons, carving 18 Long, numerous clouds, while the small, weighing about 1.2 tons, and completely non-destructive, the world's top rare treasures.
Therefore, the early 18th century, the ancients did not think that jade is the jade, jade cheap, to the 18th century, emerald expensive curios. according to "Stone Ya" to know the beginning of this century about 45 kg of jade stones worth eleven pounds. Lacking the jade stones, when the price is also very expensive, but compared with now, one kilogram of premium jade 78 of thousands of dollars simply pale into insignificance. (Note: according to Ouyang Xiu "Country life recorded" records, not later than in the northern song dynasty in the early years, jade has green gem name, for the ban in the treasure. Ji Xiaolan said perhaps is another emerald.)
jade mining, transportation, processing, marketing has always Yunnan. A Chinese-style temple of Myanmar ancient capital of Emo Luo complement Rochester, carved inscription on the 5000 China jade Manufacturers name jade edge and jewelry are also described. ming Ye Gaoguan eunuch stationed Baoshan Tengchong specialized procurement jewelry. From the from Yongchang vault to Myitkyina in Myanmar have been front-line "jade road", "Po said of Wells Road. Tengchong to Burma Road to the most prosperous every day, more than 20,000 horses mules through them, the the Tengchong jewelry trade accounted for almost 9 percent of the world jade trading. 1950, Tengchong County, more than 30 million overseas Chinese in Myanmar. Until today, tens of thousands of yunnan in the jade industry in Myanmar.
form1. chemical composition: sodium silicate aluminum-NaAI [Si2 O6 ", often containing Ca and Cr, Ni, Mn and Mg and Fe and other trace elements.
2. The mineral composition: jadeite for omphacite, sodium chromium pyroxene aegirine, hornblende, sodium feldspar. crystallization characteristics of
(3): monoclinic system, often has columnar, fibrous, felt-like dense aggregates of raw materials was massive secondary material for the gravel-like
4. Hardness of 6.5 - 7.5
5. Cleavage: cleavage in fine-grained aggregates; coarse particles in the cross section can be seen shining fly wings "
6. Light: oil sheen to glass luster
7. Transparency: translucent to opaque
8. Relative density :3.30 - 3.36, usually 3.33
9. refractive index :1.65 - 1.67 1.66 near the refractometer, a vague shadow boundary
10. Color: color, colorful, green for the top grade, can be divided into three types according to color; ① skin type color; color refers to the jade the outermost layer of the epidermis, formed with the late weathering. Such color is varying shades of red, yellow and gray, which is characterized in the skin close to the raw materials section was nearly concentric. Red is often referred to as Fei; ② to sub-color: also known as the "fundamentals" of color, background color meaning, other colors other than green, different shades of white, oil color, lotus root starch, gray; ③ green class color; refers to the jade the true nature of these colors for a variety of different shades of green. Sometimes green with black. Green often referred to as Chui
11. Luminescence: light-colored jade issued in the long-wave ultraviolet light dim white fluorescent under shortwave uv reaction
formemerald how the formation of? There are many wonderful legends of the civil; geologists previously been seen as a mystery, some believed that jade and diamonds, are crystallized in the deep crust thousands of degrees of temperature, high pressure conditions, it is not true; a lot of geophysics in the United States scientist done a lot of simulation experiments in the laboratory, combined with around the world found that the actual situation of the emerald deposits, they believe that jade is not formed at high temperatures, the formation at low temperatures under high pressure metamorphism.
Sunagawa Ichiro Professor, Tohoku University, Japan in the words of precious stones "(1983) a book, more specifically, that jade is formed under 10,000 atmospheres, and relatively low temperature (200 - 300 ° C). We know that the Earth's surface to the deep, the more the depth of the higher the temperature, the greater the pressure. jade both crystal formation in the low temperature and high pressure conditions, of course, not in the deeper part of the then high pressure exactly come from?
This high pressure is due to crustal movement caused by the extrusion pressure formed, has now been confirmed, all emerald deposits in the distribution area, are more intense zone of crustal movement. quality jade jewelry market, mostly from the emerald deposits of Myanmar Wulu River (River) basin Quaternary and Tertiary conglomerate level students. They are mainly distributed in the northern mountains of Myanmar, north-south length of 240 km and 170 km wide from east to west. In 1871, Myanmar Wulu (also for Houyoux, Oolong, Ulu) River basin found that the jade ore, of which the most famous deposits of 4 They are the degree of risk, Burma to take, Pan risk and Nannai take. Native mine emerald rock mainly is white and scattered a variety of green tones and brown-yellow, light purple of jadeite rock composition, in addition to jadeite mineral outside the diopside, amphibole, aegirine and sodium long stone and other minerals, to reach gem grade of green jade very little.
Myanmar produced jade, jade produced in the world, Guatemala, Japan, the United States, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Colombia. emerald features of these countries to reach the gem, mostly for some of the process of carving class raw materials.
jade of commercial grade currently on the market for more than 95 percent of Myanmar, and thus emerald, also known as Burma jade.
jade "Ten pit"related information, the origin of the original stone in Myanmar produced a summary for reference:
: head mess dry for the new plant, skin, water is good and the end of good, white mist. Mainly produced in the violet and red Fei.
II: Pa Kong the case of the historical pit mining the earliest. Pa Kong, thin, gray and yellow white skin, fine crystalline, kind of good, high transparency, color enough.
: gray the Capitoline shell mottled, grayish green and gray and black, the transparency of the mixed, the bottom is good or bad the uneven distribution of green water is often better.
: Ma Meng also known as black sand black black sand black with gray bottom generally poor and often clip of black silk or white mist, green partial basket.
: playing wood cut, also known as knife grinding cut the hull brown gray, red and yellow, the general water and low are good, but more than the white mist, Huang Wu.
6: wipe Kong skin thicker, skin color, yellow or gray; water and bottom are good, crack folder Yan green high tsui variety of green or full of green, very few impurities. The glass bottom is more common, but the yield is less.
7: Since the main wall, also known as sub-base hull yellow gray are good underwater, crack, but the white mist, its products well-known blue flower water
8: Tong, also known as lung Hang yellow sand skin or pale skin, hull coarse. Most of the water and bottom, green is very often a high tsui material.
nine: Massa is a new plant, no skin or less skin, green is more shallow water and the end of good and bad, mainly for low-grade Burma jade bracelet material or large ornaments material.
X: Jiang, also known as Canton, the end points the old River and New River, are produced in the sand of the riverbed impact. Among them, the old Hau Giang production from the bottom of the shock layer.
common varieties, a dozen of the old crater kinds of jade, ice emerald water species emerald varieties. the old
old crater kinds of jadebusiness community commonly known as the old crater glass, usually with a shiny glass, its delicate texture, pure and flawless, the color is pure, bright, rich, uniform pit kinds of jade
emerald green; old crater kinds of jade jadeite grain is very fine, therefore, extremely difficult to see with the naked eye "Green"; old crater kinds of jade in translucent light irradiation transparent, emerald in the top grade or the best. texture of the old crater species are similar, or less colorless color, ice species is characterized by the outer surface, good luster, translucent to transparent, clear and Shining, giving to the ice Qing yu Ying feeling. Ruo-Bing kinds of jade the floc flower-like or intermittent pulse ribbon of blue color, called so that the emerald as the "blue flower ice, the ice kind of a common species in the emerald. ice kinds of jade material used to make a bracelet or pendant. Colorless ice emerald and blue flowers in ice "jade value there is no obvious gap between the actual price depends on people liking. The ice is in the file or mid-range level emerald.
water jadejade structure is a little thicker than the old crater glass, gloss, transparency is also slightly lower than the old crater glass with ice kinds of similar or equivalent. Which is characterized by transparent water, but soft gloss, to meso their internal structure, we can see a little "ripple" or a small amount of dark crack
and marbled, and occasionally also be seen few impurities, cotton Liu. Some experts say water jade is pale or colorless, slightly lower quality old crater kinds of jade. Is a variety of jade in the file, and occasionally stalls. color like violet flowers, purple jade, jewelery sector in turn violet known as "piles" or "Spring". "Spring" jade has high, medium and low of each grade is not as long as the violet, will certainly be valuable, must be top grade, also combined with the texture, transparency, technology, production standards and quality indicators of a comprehensive evaluation.
jade on the purple is generally not deep, emerald sector according to the different shades of purple hue, the emerald in purple divided into light purple, eggplant purple and violet, purple is usually the texture finer, better transparency, tomato purple, followed by blue-violet in that order. white Green Features is the end of white snow, green is very bright white and green clear in a white base. emerald easily identify this species: Green was patchy distribution, poor transparency, opaque or slightly transparent; jade pieces of fiber and fine-grained mosaic structure, but mainly of fine-grained structure; under a microscope on a white background (subject to 30 to 40 times magnification), the surface of common hole or uneven structure.The
This variety is mostly mid-Jade, a few green white clear, green bright and color good shape, well-coordinated color, bottom up in the high-end product grade. the color green as veins distribution very irregular; texture with thick and thin, translucent. The background is light green or other colors. Such as light gray or green beans, the structure of fibers and fine in grain structure. The characteristics of cyanine emerald green uneven. Some are more intensive, more sparse, the colors are deep and with a light. The cyanine emerald a structure only grainy sense of water, because the structure is rough, so transparency is often poor. cyanine case of mid-range or medium and low grade jade.
red Feicolor red, or orange jade, in the market, it is easy to see. Fei Hung's color is
jadeite crystals generated after the formation of the Department of hematite dip due to Which is characterized by bright red or dark red, good red jade color, with shiny glass, its transparency, semitransparent red Fei product often for mid-range or low commodity, but also high-end red Fei: Zeming li color, texture delicate, very beautiful, loved by the people, with the auspicious color of emerald.
yellow brown kingfishercolor from yellow to brownish yellow or brown, yellow jade, low level of transparency. The color of jade products of this series can be seen everywhere in the market. Them the color of the jadeite crystals generated after the formation, often located above the red layer is disseminated limonite due. Fei Hung's value in the market, higher than that of the Huang Fei, Huang Fei higher than the pale-brown kingfisher, the price of brown Huang Fei second. But there are also distinctive because of people's favorite and accessories, while its price is different from the conventional.
beans jadereferred to as beans, beans, jade is a very common species in the jade family. ice waxy generally refers to the transparency, head good waxy kinds ice kinds of levels of a jade varieties order to distinguish ordinary waxy also called ice of the end. jade is generally pale green, excluding yellow color, green, clear, pure, and sometimes its base slightly pink.
horse teeth kinds of jadetexture, although smaller, but opaque, the surface shiny as porcelain.
Oufen kinds of jadeits delicate texture, like lotus root starch species, the color was pale purple (light spring), is a good arts and crafts raw materials. the
wide pieceis characterized by green in natural light, dark or black, the texture of coarse head drier. color and taste of jade, is a high grade jade in the market. orange and yellow color was shaped strip, filamentous arranged in parallel and directional structure development jade, with the exception of different colors and Beatrice, the other the same characteristics and Beatrice. But usually gold emerald price is lower than the Beatrice kind of jade. oil green species or oil-immersed, its transparent and gloss look there is glossy, the market can be seen everywhere in the middle and low emerald Often used in the production of pendants, bracelets, also made ring surface. oil Green Green obviously impure, containing gray, and blue components, so the more boring, not enough bright.
Bashan yu h3> "the Bashan Jade" the original stone is a crystalline material is thick, loose structure, water, dry the end of poor brick material, but its rich color, purple, light green, green, or blue-gray The other colors, is a lower grade, and contain amphibole, albite and other minerals of special jade. poor white or light gray-white jade. jade expert to its evaluation are: the kinds of crude, water, dry, do not Run. Colorless or light color of this species, the boundaries between the grains can be seen with the naked eye, so the rough appearance of the structure, use and ornamental value, is a low-end varieties of jade.
Citroen johnsonfull green jade pieces. Its deposits in 1990 1994 public mining in 2000 is nearly exhausted, the fineness of the market good Citroen students from as rare.
the Citroen health is a bright green, but the tones of different shades, poor transparency, loose structure, columnar crystals were arranged in a certain direction mid-jade, can often be seen in the market. Citroen students' voice to take white Burmese Burman Citroen health "means full green.
related knowledgeEvaluation of jade "to", "good water", "Tsui well" and other terms. "" Means the other colors of the jade, jade less tsui of varying; "good water" refers to jade texture lubricating delicate, transparent clear, crystal dignified Pitt bright gratifying, also known as
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