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Jade

Read in Chinese(Traditional)

   

[Intro]

Jade, also known as jadeite jade, jade, jadeite, Myanmar jade, jade a color was green (commonly known as Chui) or red (called Fei). Is in the process of geological formation of jadeite, omphacite, and sodium chromium pyroxene reach jade grade polycrystalline aggregates. In addition, in the cartoon characters of the name "Jade".


Introduction

Pinyin: fěi cuì
English name of jadeite from the Spanish plcdode jade referred to, which means precious stones worn on the waist.
jade name of the source there are several theories, one from bird feathers of this bird is very bright male plumage red, kingfisher birds (also known as Akabane birds), female feathers green, Kingfisher (also known as green feather birds), collectively known as the emerald industry Fei for the public, tsui mother saying. The ming dynasty, Myanmar jade came to China, dubbed the name "Jade". Another said that the ancient "Jade" refers specifically produced in Hotan jade, jade came to China in order to distinguish Wada Tianlv Yu, called the "Non-Green", and gradually evolved into the "Emerald".
emerald name for a long time, the Northern Song Ouyang Xiu "turn to the life recorded in" volume II contains: "I (Ouyang Xiu) have a jade vase shape is very ancient and sophisticated, may only the plum St Yu, thinking jasper in Yingzhou when, taste to show the bureaucracy. ride horses seal jurisdiction Deng baoji who, the Shinshu toward the old Neichen, insight, said: This treasure device is called emerald. cloud ban treasures are Tibet should be holy library The emerald light a library, so knowledge also. "green jade" jade "can be seen a long time, and no later than in the Northern Song Dynasty, has been regarded as treasures. Perhaps the ancient jade with the same name with this "Jade" is heterogeneous, so Ji Xiaolan said in their childhood, when people "not to jade, as (Note Ouyang Wenzhong, the Country Life: Ouyang Xiu "record" contained in the Complete Works, 126, 127 volumes)

raw jade stone


emerald genus pyroxene, monoclinic system, complete cleavage. The main component of sodium silicate (NaAlSi2O6, containing more than 50% of sodium silicate are treated as jade gem mines), produced at low temperature under high pressure generated by metamorphic layer. Often associated with glaucophane, muscovite, lawsonite (dihydrate calcium feldspar), aragonite and quartz. Mohs hardness of between 6.5-7, the proportion of between 3.25-3.35, melting point range of between 900-1000 ° C.

Han dynasty step Yunlong PIP cylinder


Early jade is not expensive, the value is not high, not paying attention to the world, Ji Xiaolan (1724 - 1805 ) wrote: "Reading Notes of" the severity of the cover material, various fashion when its fixed Beach, remember I childhood, ginseng, coral, lapis lazuli, the price is neither expensive, this day .. ..... yunnan Jade, was not jade, however dry yellow, such as Lam Tin, strong jade ear, this compared with curios, the price is far out of the real jade on men. Han dynasty before the black dragon Buyun the wang Zhengpeng has taken mother and cylinder about 90 cm, and the larger, three of encirclement, the wall thickness of about 15 cm and weighs about 1.5 tons, carving 18 Long, numerous clouds, while the small, weighing about 1.2 tons, and completely non-destructive, the world's top rare treasures.

brim


Therefore, the early 18th century, the ancients did not think that jade is the jade, jade cheap, to the 18th century, emerald expensive curios. according to "Stone Ya" to know the beginning of this century about 45 kg of jade stones worth eleven pounds. Lacking the jade stones, when the price is also very expensive, but compared with now, one kilogram of premium jade 78 of thousands of dollars simply pale into insignificance. (Note: according to Ouyang Xiu "Country life recorded" records, not later than in the northern song dynasty in the early years, jade has green gem name, for the ban in the treasure. Ji Xiaolan said perhaps is another emerald.)
jade mining, transportation, processing, marketing has always Yunnan. A Chinese-style temple of Myanmar ancient capital of Emo Luo complement Rochester, carved inscription on the 5000 China jade Manufacturers name jade edge and jewelry are also described. ming Ye Gaoguan eunuch stationed Baoshan Tengchong specialized procurement jewelry. From the from Yongchang vault to Myitkyina in Myanmar have been front-line "jade road", "Po said of Wells Road. Tengchong to Burma Road to the most prosperous every day, more than 20,000 horses mules through them, the the Tengchong jewelry trade accounted for almost 9 percent of the world jade trading. 1950, Tengchong County, more than 30 million overseas Chinese in Myanmar. Until today, tens of thousands of yunnan in the jade industry in Myanmar.

form

1. chemical composition: sodium silicate aluminum-NaAI [Si2 O6 ", often containing Ca and Cr, Ni, Mn and Mg and Fe and other trace elements.
CAS: 1344-00-9
2. The mineral composition: jadeite for omphacite, sodium chromium pyroxene aegirine, hornblende, sodium feldspar. crystallization characteristics of


(3): monoclinic system, often has columnar, fibrous, felt-like dense aggregates of raw materials was massive secondary material for the gravel-like
4. Hardness of 6.5 - 7.5
5. Cleavage: cleavage in fine-grained aggregates; coarse particles in the cross section can be seen shining fly wings "
6. Light: oil sheen to glass luster
7. Transparency: translucent to opaque
8. Relative density :3.30 - 3.36, usually 3.33
9. refractive index :1.65 - 1.67 1.66 near the refractometer, a vague shadow boundary
10. Color: color, colorful, green for the top grade, can be divided into three types according to color; ① skin type color; color refers to the jade the outermost layer of the epidermis, formed with the late weathering. Such color is varying shades of red, yellow and gray, which is characterized in the skin close to the raw materials section was nearly concentric. Red is often referred to as Fei; ② to sub-color: also known as the "fundamentals" of color, background color meaning, other colors other than green, different shades of white, oil color, lotus root starch, gray; ③ green class color; refers to the jade the true nature of these colors for a variety of different shades of green. Sometimes green with black. Green often referred to as Chui
11. Luminescence: light-colored jade issued in the long-wave ultraviolet light dim white fluorescent under shortwave uv reaction

form

emerald how the formation of? There are many wonderful legends of the civil; geologists previously been seen as a mystery, some believed that jade and diamonds, are crystallized in the deep crust thousands of degrees of temperature, high pressure conditions, it is not true; a lot of geophysics in the United States scientist done a lot of simulation experiments in the laboratory, combined with around the world found that the actual situation of the emerald deposits, they believe that jade is not formed at high temperatures, the formation at low temperatures under high pressure metamorphism.
Sunagawa Ichiro Professor, Tohoku University, Japan in the words of precious stones "(1983) a book, more specifically, that jade is formed under 10,000 atmospheres, and relatively low temperature (200 - 300 ° C). We know that the Earth's surface to the deep, the more the depth of the higher the temperature, the greater the pressure. jade both crystal formation in the low temperature and high pressure conditions, of course, not in the deeper part of the then high pressure exactly come from?
This high pressure is due to crustal movement caused by the extrusion pressure formed, has now been confirmed, all emerald deposits in the distribution area, are more intense zone of crustal movement.

origin

quality jade jewelry market, mostly from the emerald deposits of Myanmar Wulu River (River) basin Quaternary and Tertiary conglomerate level students. They are mainly distributed in the northern mountains of Myanmar, north-south length of 240 km and 170 km wide from east to west. In 1871, Myanmar Wulu (also for Houyoux, Oolong, Ulu) River basin found that the jade ore, of which the most famous deposits of 4 They are the degree of risk, Burma to take, Pan risk and Nannai take. Native mine emerald rock mainly is white and scattered a variety of green tones and brown-yellow, light purple of jadeite rock composition, in addition to jadeite mineral outside the diopside, amphibole, aegirine and sodium long stone and other minerals, to reach gem grade of green jade very little.
Myanmar produced jade, jade produced in the world, Guatemala, Japan, the United States, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Colombia. emerald features of these countries to reach the gem, mostly for some of the process of carving class raw materials.
jade of commercial grade currently on the market for more than 95 percent of Myanmar, and thus emerald, also known as Burma jade.

jade "Ten pit"

related information, the origin of the original stone in Myanmar produced a summary for reference:
: head mess dry for the new plant, skin, water is good and the end of good, white mist. Mainly produced in the violet and red Fei.
II: Pa Kong the case of the historical pit mining the earliest. Pa Kong, thin, gray and yellow white skin, fine crystalline, kind of good, high transparency, color enough.
: gray the Capitoline shell mottled, grayish green and gray and black, the transparency of the mixed, the bottom is good or bad the uneven distribution of green water is often better.
: Ma Meng also known as black sand black black sand black with gray bottom generally poor and often clip of black silk or white mist, green partial basket.
: playing wood cut, also known as knife grinding cut the hull brown gray, red and yellow, the general water and low are good, but more than the white mist, Huang Wu.
6: wipe Kong skin thicker, skin color, yellow or gray; water and bottom are good, crack folder Yan green high tsui variety of green or full of green, very few impurities. The glass bottom is more common, but the yield is less.
7: Since the main wall, also known as sub-base hull yellow gray are good underwater, crack, but the white mist, its products well-known blue flower water
8: Tong, also known as lung Hang yellow sand skin or pale skin, hull coarse. Most of the water and bottom, green is very often a high tsui material.
nine: Massa is a new plant, no skin or less skin, green is more shallow water and the end of good and bad, mainly for low-grade Burma jade bracelet material or large ornaments material.
X: Jiang, also known as Canton, the end points the old River and New River, are produced in the sand of the riverbed impact. Among them, the old Hau Giang production from the bottom of the shock layer.

common varieties

jade


common varieties, a dozen of the old crater kinds of jade, ice emerald water species emerald varieties. the old

of the

old crater kinds of jade

business community commonly known as the old crater glass, usually with a shiny glass, its delicate texture, pure and flawless, the color is pure, bright, rich, uniform pit kinds of jade


emerald green; old crater kinds of jade jadeite grain is very fine, therefore, extremely difficult to see with the naked eye "Green"; old crater kinds of jade in translucent light irradiation transparent, emerald in the top grade or the best.

ice jade

texture of the old crater species are similar, or less colorless color, ice species is characterized by the outer surface, good luster, translucent to transparent, clear and Shining, giving to the ice Qing yu Ying feeling. Ruo-Bing kinds of jade the floc flower-like or intermittent pulse ribbon of blue color, called so that the emerald as the "blue flower ice, the ice kind of a common species in the emerald. ice kinds of jade material used to make a bracelet or pendant. Colorless ice emerald and blue flowers in ice "jade value there is no obvious gap between the actual price depends on people liking. The ice is in the file or mid-range level emerald.

water jade

jade structure is a little thicker than the old crater glass, gloss, transparency is also slightly lower than the old crater glass with ice kinds of similar or equivalent. Which is characterized by transparent water, but soft gloss, to meso their internal structure, we can see a little "ripple" or a small amount of dark crack

jade bracelets


and marbled, and occasionally also be seen few impurities, cotton Liu. Some experts say water jade is pale or colorless, slightly lower quality old crater kinds of jade. Is a variety of jade in the file, and occasionally stalls.

violet jade

This is a color like violet flowers, purple jade, jewelery sector in turn violet known as "piles" or "Spring". "Spring" jade has high, medium and low of each grade is not as long as the violet, will certainly be valuable, must be top grade, also combined with the texture, transparency, technology, production standards and quality indicators of a comprehensive evaluation.
jade on the purple is generally not deep, emerald sector according to the different shades of purple hue, the emerald in purple divided into light purple, eggplant purple and violet, purple is usually the texture finer, better transparency, tomato purple, followed by blue-violet in that order.

white green jade

white Green Features is the end of white snow, green is very bright white and green clear in a white base. emerald easily identify this species: Green was patchy distribution, poor transparency, opaque or slightly transparent; jade pieces of fiber and fine-grained mosaic structure, but mainly of fine-grained structure; under a microscope on a white background (subject to 30 to 40 times magnification), the surface of common hole or uneven structure.The
This variety is mostly mid-Jade, a few green white clear, green bright and color good shape, well-coordinated color, bottom up in the high-end product grade. the

cyanine jade

color green as veins distribution very irregular; texture with thick and thin, translucent. The background is light green or other colors. Such as light gray or green beans, the structure of fibers and fine in grain structure. The characteristics of cyanine emerald green uneven. Some are more intensive, more sparse, the colors are deep and with a light. The cyanine emerald a structure only grainy sense of water, because the structure is rough, so transparency is often poor. cyanine case of mid-range or medium and low grade jade.

red Fei

color red, or orange jade, in the market, it is easy to see. Fei Hung's color is

jade


jadeite crystals generated after the formation of the Department of hematite dip due to Which is characterized by bright red or dark red, good red jade color, with shiny glass, its transparency, semitransparent red Fei product often for mid-range or low commodity, but also high-end red Fei: Zeming li color, texture delicate, very beautiful, loved by the people, with the auspicious color of emerald.

yellow brown kingfisher

color from yellow to brownish yellow or brown, yellow jade, low level of transparency. The color of jade products of this series can be seen everywhere in the market. Them the color of the jadeite crystals generated after the formation, often located above the red layer is disseminated limonite due. Fei Hung's value in the market, higher than that of the Huang Fei, Huang Fei higher than the pale-brown kingfisher, the price of brown Huang Fei second. But there are also distinctive because of people's favorite and accessories, while its price is different from the conventional.

beans jade

referred to as beans, beans, jade is a very common species in the jade family.

ice waxy jade

ice waxy generally refers to the transparency, head good waxy kinds ice kinds of levels of a jade varieties order to distinguish ordinary waxy also called ice of the end.

hibiscus kinds of jade

referred to as Hibiscus, the varieties of jade is generally pale green, excluding yellow color, green, clear, pure, and sometimes its base slightly pink.

horse teeth kinds of jade

texture, although smaller, but opaque, the surface shiny as porcelain.

Oufen kinds of jade

its delicate texture, like lotus root starch species, the color was pale purple (light spring), is a good arts and crafts raw materials. the

wide piece

is characterized by green in natural light, dark or black, the texture of coarse head drier.

tsui silk kinds of jade

This is a texture, color and taste of jade, is a high grade jade in the market.

gold species

in the shallow end being contains yellow, orange and yellow color was shaped strip, filamentous arranged in parallel and directional structure development jade, with the exception of different colors and Beatrice, the other the same characteristics and Beatrice. But usually gold emerald price is lower than the Beatrice kind of jade.

oil green jade

referred to as oil green species or oil-immersed, its transparent and gloss look there is glossy, the market can be seen everywhere in the middle and low emerald Often used in the production of pendants, bracelets, also made ring surface. oil Green Green obviously impure, containing gray, and blue components, so the more boring, not enough bright.

Bashan yu "the Bashan Jade" the original stone is a crystalline material is thick, loose structure, water, dry the end of poor brick material, but its rich color, purple, light green, green, or blue-gray The other colors, is a lower grade, and contain amphibole, albite and other minerals of special jade.

dry white jade

coarse texture, transparency and poor white or light gray-white jade. jade expert to its evaluation are: the kinds of crude, water, dry, do not Run. Colorless or light color of this species, the boundaries between the grains can be seen with the naked eye, so the rough appearance of the structure, use and ornamental value, is a low-end varieties of jade.

ink tsui early look at the black shiny, very easily lead people to mistakenly believe that dushan jade, black jade, or other black gem, but the observation in transmitted light, the translucent in the black through green flake ink Tsui, gratifying color in transmitted light. Burmese "lover's shadow" to describe black jadeite, the Chinese people for their name to "Mexican Green".

Citroen johnson

full green jade pieces. Its deposits in 1990 1994 public mining in 2000 is nearly exhausted, the fineness of the market good Citroen students from as rare.
the Citroen health is a bright green, but the tones of different shades, poor transparency, loose structure, columnar crystals were arranged in a certain direction mid-jade, can often be seen in the market. Citroen students' voice to take white Burmese Burman Citroen health "means full green.

related knowledge

Evaluation of jade "to", "good water", "Tsui well" and other terms. "" Means the other colors of the jade, jade less tsui of varying; "good water" refers to jade texture lubricating delicate, transparent clear, crystal dignified Pitt bright gratifying, also known as

emerald ring


as a "smart", otherwise known as "water poor"; "Cui well together" strong, positive, positive, and "the word" concentrated "refers to the thick but not light, rain holly , "Yang" bright light "is" means variegated, evil mix of color, "and" refers to the Chui uniform depth of the contrary called "light, overcast, evil, flowers.

emerald to sub glass to
completely transparent, shiny glass. Transparency of jade and precious stones. Good glass to the bracelet looks transparent as crystal, no impurity.
ice
ice to the whole matter of the second glass to transparent ice, that is, brightly lit if a layer of mist, like clean water frozen, stagnant.
water
transparent as water, glass luster. With a glass floor in a small amount of impurities.
egg blue to
texture as egg green, shiny glass. Translucent, but more pure, no impurities.
nose to
texture like snot, shiny glass. Translucent, but more pure, a small amount of impurities.
green water to
texture transparent, Fan Qing green with turquoise water to species, due to color interference, it is better to water the ground varieties.
gray water to
texture translucent, but the pan-gray. quality are they worse off than green water to gray.
purple water
texture translucent, but the pan-purple tones. The violet different emphasis on transparency, is actually a translucent violet.
muddy water to
texture, translucent, like muddy water. poor transparency of the water to.
fine white,
translucent, delicate white color. If the gloss is also a good jade raw materials.
Baisha to
translucent, sand, white. The delicate white, fine.
Fui Sha to
translucent, sand, gray. The delicate gray the Baisha ground.
green beans to
translucent, green beans to the sub. green beans to translucent varieties.
purple to
translucent, uneven of alfalfa. For the uneven color of violets.
blue and white to
translucent to opaque, blue stone and flowers. uneven texture, and only suitable for jade.
white to
translucent to opaque, quality rough also stone flowers
porcelain to
translucent to opaque, white.
dry white,
opaque, white.
rough white,
opaque, rough, white.
rough gray to
opaque, rough, gray.
dog feces to
brown, dark brown.

cut jade finished processing into bare finished and carved finished two categories.
light body products for raw materials higher, not crack, because a crack it is easy to see. emerald crack, mostly used to make flower pieces, sculptures can cover up the cracks.
evaluation bare finished flower, in the case of the same quality of light body products to your flower pieces carved products, of course, have a particularly exquisite carved jade exceptions. the

crack

existence of the crack is often fatal to jade finished, with the crack, the value of jade will be greatly reduced, especially in terms of grade jade.
generally available flashlight perspective illumination, crack is easy to see.

economic evaluation factors

1. Transparency: translucent is too transparent or opaque is not good.
2. Structure: the finer the particles the better.
3. Clarity: flawless.
4. Cut: "the shape of 玉不琢不成器" design, carved, polished, fashionable

classification

① premium: the brilliant green (emerald green), apple green glass to (translucent, delicate texture ), uniform and bright, no impurities, no cracks.
② commercial grade: green, oil green ground, slightly transparent, the intermingled translucent emerald green veinlets and spots Tsui.
③ general level: lotus root starch, green beans, light green, white and delicate, slightly transparent. Opaque jade, jade material is generally only jewelry.

gloss

jade showing shiny glass, translucent or transparent. jade containing different dye ions show a variety of colors: usually white, red, green, purple. Yellow, powder. Pure and free of impurities is white, containing chromium, showing a soft bright light green, dark green, named as Tsui. This species is the most expensive, very popular among the people's cherished favorite. If the manganese content is showing lilac, dark purple, often referred to as the spring or lotus root starch. iron element, showing dark red, maroon, red ocher, known as Fei. Chromium and copper, showing a light blue, light cyan, person olives water. Grade jade in addition to good color, texture is also extremely important. General fresh and beautiful colors, texture, transparent, shiny glass strong for the top grade. On the contrary, the texture is dry, followed by poor transparency of the species. transparency of

jade is polycrystalline, the majority of translucent or even opaque. Like single crystal precious stones such as emeralds, as transparent, so that light can be freely through the very crystal clear.

structure

refers to the thickness of the crystalline particles composed of jade, crystal shape, and their combination. Jargon, said the structure of the "bottom", hereinafter referred to as "ground".

clarity

jade and other precious stones like clarity is a major factor in assessing the value of emerald defects, mainly white and black. Determine the value of jade in the evaluation of Jade, according to the extent of the damage caused by the defects on the emerald beautiful. On luxuries, the flaw is a serious shortcoming, the effect will be much smaller, low-grade goods.relatively
black flower impact than the more to the white flowers.

appreciation and processing

category

A cargo (Allowing): Baptist wax treatment
emerald A goods are natural jade refers to naturally occurring, without the artificial use of physical, chemical damage its internal structure or material to bring to bring out the emerald. traditional crafts of the weak acid, weak base, dressed, and injection wax emerald A goods. - That has not been strong acid soak and no artificial colors of jade.
B goods (Bleached and Polymer impregnated Jadeite) bleach dispensing
C cargo (Coating jadeite) coating treatment. Stained emerald. Regardless of the acid leaching bleached or not, underfill or not, where the artificial color of jade called C goods.the
D cargo (Dyeing Jadeite) dyed

differential assessment

emerald placed under fluorescent lights, observe the color change, goods A and C goods does not change, goods B fluorescence whitish. C goods after dyeing processing, so the color distribution along the cracks, uneven distribution, careful observation can be seen to the naked eye.
Assessment
colors are evaluate emerald factors, a good color to achieve the standard is: are strong, positive, are
positive: refers to the range of tones, according to the proportion of the main color and the color is to say pure green, not mixed with other colors. Often contaminated oil green blue values ​​will fall.
thick: refers to the depth of color, emerald green in terms of the concentration of the best in the 70% - 80%, 90% for too thick.
yang: refers to the emerald color of fresh positive brightness of emerald bright jade with green and black or gray in proportion to the decision. Will be bright green in color, including black or gray more color on the gray, experts tend to take the image to represent the color of the bright sun. For example: the boxwood green, parrot green onions heart green pepper, green are the color of the bright sun. Spinach green, oil green, the river is green, dark green, refers to the color dull dark green.
emerald more bright sun, the higher the value.
are: refers to the color of the emerald distribution uniformity. The emerald color of the general distribution is uneven, such as color distribution jade really is not an easy task.
Best color: should be green pure green concentration at 70% -80%, Yan yang bright, uniform color distribution, such high-grade jade, experts used to call the old crater species.
Identifying the quality of
① texture. Natural jade texture transparent or translucent surface oil shine, carefully observed, showing that the nearly circular, slightly transparent "salt" and those surrounding fibrous material.
② hardness. Natural jade is jadeite, Mohs hardness of 7 degrees, carved with a sharp tool, will not leave traces; low hardness of fake jade, knife depicts the traces.
③ Tsui. Natural jade front light observation, we can see which other mineral particles in emerald green flash, known as green jade or emerald; glass, plastic, ceramic material made of adulterants such a "Green" characteristics.
④ The relative density (specific gravity). Natural jadeite structure is hard and close, no bubbles, density, crisp sound when struck; adulterants structure is more loose or bubbles is less dense, raucous percussion sound is not crisp.
⑤ color. Pure genuine Cuise nuanced. Some adulterants jade, serpentine, jade, Australia Han Guoyu, marble and even miscellaneous stone, poured into the high hard plastic pulp after bleaching, and for the additive color processing, or immersed in the green liquid made from the color emerald " observed under a bright light, visible green lines, messy and small; some lines, though not significantly, but turbid, gloss differential, its weight is lighter than the real thing.
these fake goods into the cook melt the wax poured into the paint will slowly precipitate. Such a test, will not damage the sample matrix, but also to identify true and false.
observed se Erxi filter, color tsui in the microscope, the same purple, natural, genuine color.the
some fake jade glass artificial smelting made structural relax, dim green uniform, and some air bubbles, tap with a hard device, hoarse voice.
fake emerald: the malay tsui (jade), it is the transparency of good green glamorous like high-grade jade. Is not difficult to identify the front of the light with a magnifying glass to see inside a fishing net pattern, nets cable is green mesh is white, unlike the emerald's green uneven size and shape irregular.
true and false identification
jade is a favorite gem of the Chinese people since ancient times been regarded as auspicious objects, drive away evil magic. jade is one of the jade of the rarest and most expensive varieties. Today, jade produced a variety of jewelry, crafts and jewelry is loved by many art collectors and consumers. But large numbers of people do not understand for the emerald, recently, the Xinde jade Jintan shop to provide us with this knowledge, I hope through advocacy so that people learn more about the emerald, in order to identify true and false.
emerald "species" refers to the structure and tectonics of the emerald. Is an important symbol of the quality of the jade. New "species" (also known as the emerald of the new plant of the new pit, etc.), the texture loose, coarse grain size and uneven thickness, and impurities in the mineral content of more cracks and micro cracks is developed, but not necessarily transparency backward, the proportion of hardness declined. Old "(also known as the old crater of the old plant), Jade, delicate and compact structure, fine uniform grain size, small cracks are not developed, the hardness of the highest proportion of good quality jade. But not necessarily like transparency. Between the old and new kinds of jade between new and old emerald, jade residual hillside place, without the removal of natural or natural handling of the short distance emerald. A new species of emerald production of the raw materials of jade B goods.
emerald ", meaning the degree of coordination between the emerald green part of green outside the part of the clean water (transparency) and color," "," water "and" color "between each other against the background. Folk "to" sheet "or" bottom impaired ". Chui Chui outer part of the coordination, such as tsui external watershed must tsui and Tsui, better against the background of co-ordination, tsui good but the difference impurities of Chui external watershed dirty color and more, said color poor. tsui "water" and "species" to coordinate, such as the "old color good, good water, impurities dirty color, set off each other strongly against the background of emerald love Korea, Yun Liang, and value. "Ground" the structure should be fine, the tone should be uniform, less impurities dirty color, a certain degree of transparency, take care of each other in order to "ground". Good "to", said the glass to, waxy, the egg white to. Bad "to" said the lime ground, dog feces. The water is not good, jade said "bottom dry.
Jade's "water" refers to its transparency, also known as the head. , Which means "water of emerald and jade texture and structure. And impurities, like those "old, less impurities, particle size uniformity, high purity emerald water.
Jade's "fog" refers to the emerald skin (f weathering or oxidation) and Fei internal (no weathering or oxidation) or a semi-oxidized breeze of jadeite between the meat. in essence, it is also part of the emerald is a transition zone of the weathering crust to the meat of the unweathered (jade). fog color and telling jade internal impurities how much "is always a new transparency is good or bad, and its internal clean the degree. But not for its green, and green. fog points of white, yellow, red, gray, black. Such as the skin rubbed off, revealing a pale and shallow white said white mist, indicating that the impurities in its "clean, there are certain through the mist under green, green is very pure, and to each other with value Citylink. The mist also shows that the "old, most people like to bet on the white mist. Huang Wu inside the iron and other elements are gradually oxidized, but no serious oxidation. Pure yellowish fog, the impurity elements often appear high Tsui, but sometimes blue-green color due to iron may enter the emerald lattice, but also micro-bluish green, green. The Hongwu instructions contained within the iron has been severely oxidized, may be the jadeite within the gray "to".
blanket of darkness main display the jade internal impurities, a large number of impurity elements in oxidation due to poor transparency. individual blanket of darkness will be a high Tsui, but sometimes the water is poor. Not all jade of fog, some jade place production emerald there is no fog. In general, can produce fog prolific emerald raw material in the old factories and mines of the old and new plant. jade "ringworm" refers to the emerald epidermis or internal see black and gray black patches, bands, ringworm of shapes and sizes, these black ringworm mineral hornblende, Lan amphibole schist, chromite, and some oxides, because these black mineral and color caused by chromium ions have a steady stream of chromite within the pro-source relationships, and black mineral-ringworm release of the color caused by chromium ions, emerald under appropriate conditions caused by green. Therefore, ringworm and green are closely related. folk known as "black with green walk", and "ringworm eat green". But ringworm is not necessarily green, green and do not necessarily have ringworm, environment and time of generation depends on ringworm and ringworm within the presence of chromium and other factors. Folk have to say "dead ringworm" and "living ringworm". Geological movement generated emerald and many, many hydrothermal activity, geological environment, the release of chromium allows emerald caused by green. At this time do not necessarily have ringworm, ringworm, and the Green relations.
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[Cause]

boil is caused by what the?

infection and skin dirty, scratches, high ambient temperature or lower the body resistance to infection-related. boils can occur in any follicles of the skin area, often to the head, face, neck, armpits and buttocks so often by the friction of the parts is more common.

(a) causes

boil the pathogenic bacteria staphylococcus aureus based, Streptococcus, staphylococcus epidermidis, are also caused by the disease. Local and systemic skin's resistance to infection is reduced mainly due to Benbingfasheng, so infants, malnutrition, diabetes is a good risk of this disease. Dirty skin, skin abrasions, high ambient temperatures often lead to local infection such as the direct cause.

(B) the pathogenesis

bacteria invade the hair follicle and their sebaceous glands and sweat glands, in hair follicles and surrounding tissue multiply rapidly, producing toxins, causing local tissue degeneration, necrosis, and the center of the formation of boils, the performance of local congestion, exudation, induration. Aggregation of neutrophils to the damaged body tissue cells and bacteria to be destroyed, and he gradually necrosis and dissolution, the formation of abscesses in the dermis. Due to staphylococcus aureus, coagulase contain toxins, so the formation of pus bolt, protruding outward. swelling and induration clinically visible in the center of a yellow-white pus plug. This is staphylococcus aureus infected lesion characteristics. ulceration after discharge pus, abscess gradually by the new fibrous tissue repair and healing.

[Sign]

boil the early symptoms?

1. redness, swelling, heat, pain summary, cylindrical cone.

2. inflammation to the development of nodules increases, the pain intensified.

3. A few days later nodules central necrosis, abscess formation, dissolution, soft induration, pain relief, the central pus head most of the self-rupture, discharge pus, inflammation subsided recovery.

4. furuncle usually no obvious symptoms, but if the blood flow occurred in the rich parts of the body resistance weakened, it can cause discomfort, chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite and other symptoms of toxemia.

5. facial boil such as intracranial infection, facial swelling and severe, may be associated with chills, fever, headache, sinus infections and other embolization.

boil because of location, severity of different clinical manifestations may vary.

local swelling and pain sclerosis: no systemic symptoms of early disease and more, only infection redness, swelling, pain, range of not more than 2cm in diameter, small nodules gradually enlarged, as papules bulge. A few days later lesions extended about 3 ~ 5cm, nodules gradually softened, the center was white, a slight touch of the fluctuations; then ulceration pus, and the emergence of yellow-white pus plug. pus bolt off, pus shed, the inflammation subsides and healing. There is no pus boil bolt (the so-called headless boil), since the collapse a bit late, need to find ways to promote its pus discharge (Figure 2 ).

fever, swollen lymph nodes: furuncle serious infection, the local area of ​​the lymph nodes, tenderness, and may be associated with body heat, and sometimes lymph node abscess formation.

nose, upper lip and around (called "dangerous triangle") of the surface boil, add or pushed in touch, the bacteria via the angular vein, ophthalmic vein into the brain, causing intracranial suppurative infection. At this point may have fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disorders.

early follicular redness, swelling, heat, pain, induration. After the white purulent center, there is volatility. May be associated with systemic fever, elevated white blood cell count and differential count.

[Aftertreat]

boil ate?

therapeutic side:

1. composed of: a single head of garlic, honey, 9 grams. Usage: pound evenly wrap the affected area.

2. consists of: single head of garlic amount. Usage: peel and slice into 2 to 3 mm, with the first affected area with warm salt water when dry wash, and then sticking garlic, and gently massage the 10 to 20 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day, 2 3 There is no more. Indications: Boil, folliculitis. Note: In severe cases, such as local irritation may reduce the massage time, a serious condition should be added to serve anti-inflammatory drugs.

3 . composed of: tea 2 grams of dried honeysuckle 1 gram. Usage: boiling water 6 minutes after each meal drink in a cup. Indications: Boil, exogenous heat.

4. composed of: fresh Malan first 100 grams, the amount of liquor. Usage: Add a little salt before blindly smashed wine Ban Cheng paste, coating the surface of the skin furuncle carbuncle. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle.

5. Composition: rosin 10 grams of white wine. Usage: rosin research to fine tune white wine into a paste, resisting heat, wrap the affected area after dissolution, for the degree of responsibility to cover all of the above and then covered with wax paper and tape securely, to enhance efficacy, can drop a few drops of wine, rosin to keep moist. Indications: furuncle, carbuncle, folliculitis.

6. smashed topical papaya leaves, swollen boil carbuncle treatment drug.

7. fresh peach leaf, plug smashed the lesion, treatment of nasal furuncle.

8. rhizome or fresh banana leaves smashed Jiao Zhi, coating the surface of the skin, cure carbuncles, boils, swelling.

9. almond powder with sesame oil paint, heat treatment boil.

10. purple cane coal deposit of the skin, powder, paint the affected area or sesame oil dressing, boil carbuncle treatment, stomatitis , eczema.

11. raw taro add a little salt, smashed drunk wrap the affected area twice a day replacement, bones can cure pain, swelling of unknown drugs, pediatric head hot boil, finger boil.

12. raw loofah (or leaf), smashed juice, coated surface of the skin, soak sore treatment days, yellow water sores, heat boils, urticaria .

13. mung bean sugar kelp: seaweed 60 grams, shredded, green beans, 150 grams, with the soup, add brown sugar to taste food. There Sedative, diuretic, soft-kin, Phlegm, scattered gall tumor effect. For hypertension, beriberi edema, neck lymphadenopathy, simple goiter, prickly heat boils hot summer day in children poison, phlegm cough embolism.

14. yi melon soup: melon (not peeled) 500-600 g, yi 50-100 grams of soup. Can be flavored with sugar or salt, on behalf of the tea used, heat, hot weather, diuretic, dehumidification effect. drugs for rush boils, eczema athlete's foot, yellow urine deficient.

15. Daozhi raw turnip, vinegar and rub the affected area transfer, heat treatment boil.

16. green beans 30 grams of powder, each 10 grams, water delivery service, boils cure breast swelling and pain.

17. failure to adopt the open rose 3 - 5 朵 wash, add water, two pregnant, suffering from a cup of low heat, ice sugar 30 grams, made of rose soup, until the temperature dose, to cure blood stasis amenorrhea, boils Chung pain, traumatic swelling and pain.

18. boils and pus ulceration of the skin sore or eczema, rinse with water, tea, allow the wound clean and promote healing.

19. a white sweet potato, peeled and chopped, smashed, can also be added with the same amount of fresh houttuynia smashed, spreads in the affected area, apply to the local heating that line replace (about two three hours long), and even apply a few days more, boils cure mastitis.

20. soybeans amount, turn on the water immersed soft, add a little alum were smashed drunk, external surface of the skin, swollen boils boil treatment.

21. adzuki beans with water until soft, mash with water or vinegar, or honey or egg amount, into a paste, external surface of the skin, cure mumps, hot boil.

22. kapok 30 - 50 grams of sugar amount, fry a bowl with water and drink two bowls and a half. Favorable moisture, heat effect. For enteritis, urethritis, eczema, summer boil embolism.

23. fresh buckwheat leaves 60 grams, Shuijianbi day one; or fried yellow noodles with the vinegar into a paste, applied to the lesion, sooner or later be replaced. Governance sore, swollen boils, erysipelas, mastitis, and swelling of unknown drugs.

appropriate patients to eat what?

1, edible grapes plus zinc salt or zinc, other foods such as soy, sunflower seeds, wheat bran, yeast, brown sugar and so on.

2, Yi Shi taste light, the cold food, such as Malan head, purslane, melon, red and white radish, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, mung bean, red bean, lily, chrysanthemum brain and celery.

patients unfit to eat what?

not eat ginger, pepper and other spicy foods , as well as mustard, yellow croaker, shrimp, crab, chicken head, goose, zhu tourou so fat objects.

should avoid fried foods and meat, edible oil cans.

data only refer to the specific, please ask a doctor.

[Prevent]

how to prevent boils?

boil is born of acute suppurative superficial skin disorders, widely available health, children, young people more common. "Surgical management case" that: "boil persons, birth processes, floating red rootless feet, swollen found in the skin, only the width of an inch, there is less pain, a few days later Microsoft, thin peel, the beginning of the blue water, the latter from breaking the pus out of. "The disease occurs in the summer and autumn, protruding roots shallow, swelling potential limitations, lift the red pain, mostly in the range of about 3cm, easily swollen, easy to collapse, Yi Lian. Early can be divided into a head, without the first two kinds of general light and easy to cure the symptoms, so the saying goes, "no boil the size of a pus like." ;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; But also due to the formation of improper treatment or care "mole cricket boils," or repeated seizures, lack of disunion. Multiple furunculosis ", is difficult to cure.

[Treat]

boil precautions before treatment?

attention to the skin clean, timely replacement of underwear and avoid skin injuries, especially in the summer, to bathe, wash your hair, hair, changing clothes, nails, children in particular should pay attention. With honeysuckle and wild chrysanthemum Jiantang tea. boil the surrounding skin should be kept clean and coated with 70% alcohol to prevent infection spread to nearby hair follicles.

boil Chinese medicine treatment methods

total boil caused by the toxic heat treatment to detoxify the basic principles.

A Differential Treatment:

1. heat toxin accumulation card: lesion processes, such as cone, burning pain, or fever, thirst, tongue pink, yellow fur, rapid pulse. Detoxification. Flavors disinfection decoction.

2. shushi heat Melancholia: seen in summer and autumn, the affected area, such as agglomeration cone, single or multiple, burning pain, chest tightness, anorexia, deficient urination, red tongue, greasy or yellowish, veins slippery. Qingshu dampness, detoxification swelling. Qingshu Decoction.

3. Is virtual evil love cards: distributed in the body, local color dark red, pus scarce, one after another, delayed healing, with fever, irritability, thirst, or fatigue, limb soft, red tongue thin yellow, rapid pulse. Righting detoxification. Liu wei di huang Decoction.

Second, external treatment and other treatment:

1. The beginning of detoxification should be swelling, moderate to henbane, water reconcile, wrap the affected area. Or wishful golden powder for external application. Or green cream Waicha.

2. Pus, the clip bolt out the pus.

3. Unhealed after the collapse, sores can be a little ninety-one dan to drugs or drug line twist into sores, topical berberine gauze.

4. oral Meihuadianshe Dan, Niuhuangjiedu, Fang feng Tong Sheng Wan, liushen other medicine.

5. unilateral prescription: silver flower 30g, licorice 10g, decoction, on behalf of the tea.

Western boil treatment

1. Local treatment, such as heat, physical therapy, 10% ichthyol coated ointment. facial boil should rest in bed should not squeeze or prick Boil, so as not to spread to the brain.

2. swelling or have a large range of obvious symptoms, should give systemic antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics).

3. The formation of abscess, incision and drainage should be timely but should be avoided boil the face cut.

(a) treatment

1. The principles of early treatment to promote inflammation subsided, after early drain purulent pus; timely elimination of systemic adverse reactions.

2. Local treatment

(1) physical therapy: early, ultraviolet micro-irradiation, can promote local anti-inflammatory, to prevent proliferation. swelling stage, the selection of FM, infrared and other heat, promote boil liquid. 2 to 3 times / d, 20 ~ 30min / times.

(2) drug eraser: 0.5% povidone-iodine scrub, the drug not only for skin irritation, and the role of long-lasting, no pigmentation. Can also be used erythromycin, tetracycline ointment.

(3) topical cream: local swelling and a small pustules, use ichthyol, wishful golden powder, Gyokuro powder and so on.

(4) incision and drainage: boil into pus, nodules soften, a sense of volatility, you can make a small incision drainage or fire needle drainage. Taboo squeeze purulent lesions.

(5) to keep local clean and dry: adhere to local skin cleaning, daily showers are the best conditions. Young children with skin, topical lip after taking a bath in summer, to avoid the formation of multiple Boil.

3. Systemic treatment usually does not require systemic treatment of boils. But facial boils or accompanied by chills, fever, headache, general malaise, etc., should be given antibiotics. Clinical observations and experimental results show that the efficacy of penicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin and amikacin better effect.

(B) the prognosis

generally good prognosis after active treatment, without sequelae.

[Examine]

boil should be how?

1. peripheral blood

(1) white blood cell count: fever, elevated WBC count may have.

(2) white blood cell count: white blood cell count was elevated often accompanied by increased neutrophils .

2. diabetes check

(1) fasting plasma glucose measurement: two fasting blood glucose were increased, should consider the possibility of diabetes.

(2) glycated serum protein: This clinical trial is not the impact of fluctuations in blood glucose higher than normal to help the diagnosis of diabetes.

(3) glycosylated hemoglobin: glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose were positively correlated, and the irreversible reaction. diabetes is often higher than the normal 2 to 3 times.

3. bacteriologic

(1) bacterial culture: the multiple, repeated infections, abscesses can be extracted directly pus for bacterial culture, positive results will help the diagnosis of pathogens.

(2) drug susceptibility testing: bacterial culture in the pus, while line drug susceptibility testing can provide the scientific basis of clinical drug treatment.

[Diff]

boil diseases easily confused?

1. Multiple sweat gland abscesses are summer disease, more common in infants and young children and frail mother's head, forehead, etc .. lesions of multiple subcutaneous abscesses. surface tenderness, inflammation lighter. No pus bolt, left scars. Usually accompanied by a lot of prickly heat. Generally known as prickly heat poison. It was also known as pseudo furunculosis (Pseudofurunculosis).

2. hidradenitis suppurativa common in young women, lesions of the skin induration. Subcutaneous abscess formation, followed by skin redness, swelling, heat, pain, ulceration scarring. lesions occur in the armpits, groin, genital and perianal, umbilical, etc.

3. acne acne mild infection, red, swollen, painful, but the disease is small, the top a little bit like creamy.

4. sebaceous cysts sebaceous cyst infection are redness, swelling, pain, but the previous round has been painless mass over an extended period , the epidermis as usual.

5. carbuncle carbuncle with redness, swelling, pain, but there are several hair follicle infection, lesions larger than the boil.

[Disease]

hump-related diseases

juvenile osteochondrosis of vertebral osteoporosis youth sexual hump sore scoliosis ankylosing spondylitis vitamin d deficiency disease

more back symptoms

small blisters appear back back pain back spasms, back pain does not have subtle linen spine back pain sinus pain Road with sensory ataxia spinal nerve root damage spinal cord hemisection syndrome, spinal cord lesions of hemorrhagic infiltration of the spinal cord injury spinal cord infarction, cauda equina involvement across the spinal cord within the spinal cord gliosis in the spinal cord anterior horn of the spinal cord lesion cavity formed spinal thalamic tract compression


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