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Before the swelling and pain below the lateral malleolus

Read in Chinese(Traditional)

   

[Intro]

acute ankle ligament injury most of them have a clear history of trauma. Clinically, patients can be found before the bottom of the lateral malleolus swelling and pain, local tenderness appear, produce subcutaneous ecchymosis, joint mobility and limp and so on.

[Cause]

nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts are caused by what the?

(a) causes

nonfunctioning parathyroid cyst causes, there are two theories . A theory that is a combination of several small cysts each other, one with enhanced secretion or secretion, which is based on a non-functioning parathyroid cysts and small cysts autopsy found the same characteristics of organizational structure, cyst solution containing high concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Another theory is that when embryonic remnants of the first pharyngeal pouch Ⅲ (Kursteiner tube) storage place to stay cyst, which is based on non-functioning parathyroid cysts occurred in almost all parathyroid glands under the electron microscope in the cyst wall found in smooth muscle fibers.

(B) the pathogenesis

nonfunctioning parathyroid cyst is unilocular cysts, thin wall, by fibrous connective tissue, lined with a layer of cubic epithelium inside or cylindrical epithelium. Villous surface epithelial cells, glycogen granules within the cytoplasm and pas staining particles. cyst wall of fibrous connective tissue can be seen outside of normal parathyroid tissue, and sometimes that thymus tissue and muscle tissue. Intracavitary watery transparent serous fluid contains high concentrations of parathyroid hormone.

[Sign]

nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts early symptoms?

addition to the accidental discovery of the majority of patients with anterior tumor, there are no symptoms, a small number of patients may have symptoms of oppression. The vast majority of non-functioning parathyroid cysts occur in the next parathyroid, especially common on the left. physical examination can be hit in the vicinity of the lower pole of the thyroid tumor, tumor sizes, smooth, soft and flexible, or a sense of volatility. quality seems to be hard but sometimes tension, activity, no tenderness.

occurred in the parathyroid gland mass, b ultrasound confirmed cystic lesions; cyst puncture, which was colorless and transparent liquid slurry, which contains high concentrations of thyroid next to the gonadotropin can be diagnosed.

[Aftertreat]

nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts ate?

[Prevent]

before the bottom of the lateral malleolus should be how to prevent swelling and pain?

(a) treatment

1. Non-surgical treatment

(1) incomplete lateral ligament rupture: In addition to general treatment such as early local cooling, the affected foot brake should be strictly for the benefit of ligament repair. ① incomplete before the fibular ligament injury from: The leg cast immobilization in valgus, dorsiflexion position 3 to 4 weeks after the demolition of plaster ankle braking and functional training. ② fibular fracture with incomplete ligament: ankle position (90 ° ~ 100 °), valgus-like leg cast immobilization for 4 weeks, follow-up treatment with the former. ③ incomplete after fibular ligament from injury: the use of leg plaster valgus, plantar flexion fixed 4 to 5 weeks.

(2) ankle ligament injury is not completely simple triangular ligament injury: generally varus leg cast immobilization for 4 to 5 weeks. Zheyi mild varus can be wide tape fixed 3 weeks after the lifting of a fixed-line topical therapy and ankle.

(3) simple inferior tibiofibular ligament injury: the use of leg plaster, and on top of both sides of the ankle shaping pressure (pressure with bilateral palm of your hand), to make it reset. Fixed 4 to 6 weeks after the replacement of external ankle support.

2. surgery

(1) complete lateral ligament rupture: In addition to facilities due to poor general condition of patients who can not , in principle, should undergo ligament repair. Advanced cases of difficult to repair, can also be used near the part of the peroneus brevis muscle, most or all of the damage to the ligament reconstruction.

(2) concurrent fracture of the triangular ligament complete rupture: rupture of the ligaments of the line repair of a displaced fracture at the same time open reduction + internal fixation ( or more for tension band fixation screws). Surgery to the lower leg plaster 4 to 5 weeks. Demolition of plaster underwent functional training and external ankle support.

(3) complicated with inferior tibiofibular joint separation of the triangular ligament rupture (mostly associated with the lateral malleolus fracture): in surgery at the same time, with a long screw under the tibiofibular joint fixed fixed time is generally not more than six weeks.

(4) complicated by fractures of the inferior tibiofibular ligament injury: fracture line in the open reduction and internal fixation of the same time, multi-use long screws and re-pressurized fixed bit, plaster after 6 to 8 weeks, and decided to plaster the fracture healing time of removal.

(b) the prognosis

general prognosis is good.

[Treat]

nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts before treatment considerations?

(a) treatment

1. puncture fluid method nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts are non-functional benign, so do not rush to surgery. Be the first choice after aspiration or injection sclerotherapy needle aspiration method of treatment, sometimes after only 1 or 2 times needle aspiration can be cured.

2. parathyroid cyst excision

(1) surgical indications: after repeated aspiration recurrence in the short period of time; the growth of tumor extension to the mediastinum, or produce compression symptoms are advised to choose surgery.

(2) surgical methods: non-functional parathyroid cyst in the anesthesia, body position and the choice of incision thyroid surgery are basically the same. In addition to several preoperative aspiration after repeated treatment, the non-functioning parathyroid cysts with no surrounding tissue more easily separated adhesions. Although the position of the lower or when extended to the upper mediastinum, but generally low through the neck incision can successfully complete the surgery.

(b) the prognosis

functional parathyroid cyst surgery complications are rare, removal of cysts that cured of the disease.

nonfunctioning parathyroid cyst medicine treatment

No Information

western nonfunctioning parathyroid cyst treatment

No Information

[Examine]

before the lateral malleolus below the swelling and pain should be how?

symptoms of acute ankle ligament injury most of them have a clear history of trauma. Clinically, patients can be found before the bottom of the lateral malleolus swelling and pain, local tenderness appear, produce subcutaneous ecchymosis, joint mobility and limp and so on. Passive plantar flexion and the foot when the pain increased varus, valgus and dorsiflexion and pain can reduce the time. When it is completely broken, the ankle joint in plantar flexion, when can produce forward displacement of the talus. Apart from the ankle ligament injury ankle area under the pain, swelling, subcutaneous ecchymosis bruising, foot movement is limited, the ankle behind the ankle may have swelling of the congestion management; inferior tibiofibular ligament injury, symptoms similar to the above, but the pain and swelling were not in the front side of the ankle joint.

[Diff]

lateral malleolus below the swelling and pain before and what the symptoms easily confused?

outer ankle fractures have obvious history of trauma. Without identification can be diagnosed.

symptoms of acute ankle ligament injury most of them have a clear history of trauma. Clinically, patients can be found before the bottom of the lateral malleolus swelling and pain, local tenderness appear, produce subcutaneous ecchymosis, joint mobility and limp and so on. Passive plantar flexion and the foot when the pain increased varus, valgus and dorsiflexion and pain can reduce the time. When it is completely broken, the ankle joint in plantar flexion, when can produce forward displacement of the talus. Apart from the ankle ligament injury ankle area under the pain, swelling, subcutaneous ecchymosis bruising, foot movement is limited, the ankle behind the ankle may have swelling of the congestion management; inferior tibiofibular ligament injury, symptoms similar to the above, but the pain and swelling were not in the front side of the ankle joint.

[Disease]

before the lateral malleolus below the swelling and pain related disorders

more leg symptoms

"O"-shaped legs, "X"-type legs, "duck step" gait abnormal Q-angle character footsteps patella fracture patella strain state of flat feet chondromalacia patella patellar patellar pain, patellar crepitus pain after patellar patellar pain, patellar emptiness week refers to tenderness can not be bent restless legs syndrome ataxia or gait abnormalities prolonged strenuous exercise


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