SG: specific gravity ; pH: Urine pH; LEU: urinary leukocyte esterase; NIT: urinary nitrite; PRO: urinary protein; GLU: glucose in urine; KET: ketone; UBG: urobilinogen; BIL: urine bilirubin; ERY: urinary red blood cells; BLD: urinary occult blood.
neg: negative; norm: normal; 0.75g / L: liter of urine containing 0.75 g of material was seized; 3mmol / L: 3 cents per liter of urine contains substances were seized Moore; 2 +: two plus "++"; 150/μL: 150 per microliter. Part of a single microscopic urine tests: WBC: white blood cells; RBC: red blood cells; 0-3/HP: detection of a high-power field for each element (cell or tube) 0-3; 3 ~ 5/LP: low per magnification view of a detection element 3 to 5.
1, specific gravity (SG)
increased, seen in acute nephritis, diabetes, high fever, vomiting, diarrhea and heart failure. Lower, seen in chronic nephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure and diabetes insipidus, etc. When the specific gravity increased in the water body, on the contrary decreased. If urine has continued to decrease, then the renal tubular dysfunction or loss of concentration.
reduction seen in acidosis, gout, diabetes, fever and leukemia. In addition,? Fields ammonium chloride and other drugs may also be reduced. Increased, seen in alkalosis, blood transfusion, severe vomiting, bladder go far. Closely related to diet, eat more vegetables, fruits and the urine is alkaline, while meat dishes can be too acidic. Large fluctuations in the normal range, is 5.4-8.4, under normal circumstances be a combination of blood ph was more meaningful.
3, the urine leukocyte esterase (LEU)
4, urinary nitrite (NIT)
5, urinary protein (PRO)
clinical significance: positive, found in a variety of acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, acute pyelonephritis, multiple myeloma, renal transplantation and so on. In addition, drug, mercury, shops and other toxic renal tubular epithelial cell injury can also be found positive. Normal daily urinary protein excretion of approximately 40-80 mg, no more than 150 mg, in this context is defined as negative. Such as urinary protein, often prompted kidney disease.
clinical significance: positive, seen in diabetes, hyperthyroidism, pituitary hyperactivity, addicted to cell tumor, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, severe renal insufficiency. In addition, brain trauma, cerebral vascular accident, acute myocardial infarction, stress-induced diabetes also can occur; excessive ingestion of high-sugar things, they could produce a transient hyperglycemia, the urine sugar positive. Normal urine may have trace amounts of glucose, daily urine sugar content of 0. 1-0 3 grams, a maximum of 1 gram, urine characterized as negative. If urine positive when you need to consider two cases, one is diabetes, hyperthyroidism, such as intravenous fluids lost due to high blood sugar due; other blood sugar and urine sugar is not high, as the proximal renal tubular dysfunction cause.
7, ketone (Ket)
clinical significance: positive, seen in diabetic ketoacidosis, vomiting of pregnancy, eclampsia, diarrhea, poisoning, typhoid, measles, scarlet fever, pneumonia, sepsis, acute rheumatic fever, acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis, convulsions, etc. In addition, hunger, excessive intake of fat after delivery and protein, also may be positive. ketone negative view of diabetic ketoacidosis and starvation ketosis.
8, urobilinogen (URO or UBG)
clinical significance: positive, seen in hemolytic jaundice, liver disease. Negative, found in obstructive jaundice.
9, urine bilirubin (BIL)
clinical significance: positive, seen in cholelithiasis, biliary cancer, biliary ascariasis, pancreatic cancer and obstructive jaundice caused by liver cancer, cirrhosis, acute and chronic hepatitis, liver cell necrosis induced hepatocellular jaundice.
11, occult blood (BLD): urinary occult blood test does not mean that red blood cells in urine measured by urine analyzer urine occult blood, because of overly sensitive and lack of clinical significance.
Second, urine microscopy
(1) red blood cells: red blood cells or normal human urine, occasionally there is no red blood cells, urine, after centrifugation under each high-power field no more than three. Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis, urinary tract cancer, urinary tract stones, renal ptosis, cherry plugs kidney, urine red blood cells increased. Bleeding disorders or strenuous exercise, blood circulation disorders, leading to increased glomerular permeability, urine red blood cells increased. Women's menstrual period may be mixed with some of the blood within the urine, examination can be found in red blood cells. So women's menstrual period should not be testing the urine.
(2) white blood cells: the work is responsible for protecting the body cells, one can be surrounded by foreign bacteria and destroy. A small amount of urine can be normal white blood cells, urine sediment after centrifugation of each high-power field no more than five. glomerulonephritis when urine white blood cells can be increased slightly. Large increase is seen in inflammation of the urinary system, such as pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, renal tuberculosis.
① flat epithelial cells: from the urethra, the urine appears that the cell surface of mucosal inflammation of the urethra. Small there was no clinical significance.
② small round epithelial cells: from the renal tubules. Can be any part of the urinary tract mucosa from the deep. Therefore, the cells appear in the urine is difficult to determine the lesion. If the inner tube seen in such cells, it is a strong basis for the diagnosis of renal tubular lesions. rejection after renal transplantation, the urine may also appear as small round pieces of epithelial cells.
(4) tube: tube is in tubular form, the form of tubes. Its appearance on the diagnosis of kidney disease is important.
red tube: tube containing a large number of red blood cells, indicating that the glomerular lesions. Common in acute nephritis, acute and chronic nephritis.
③ granular casts: a transparent tube containing l / 3 or more particles, said particles tube, said kidney damage. However, fever may also occur in this tube. Particle type more common in the following situations:
fine granular casts: seen in late chronic nephritis or acute nephritis.
renal tube: also known as waxy casts, renal tubular epithelial cells from the damaged pieces of the stomach in the significant expansion of the renal collecting tubule gathered together. acute renal failure in the polyuria, the urine having been washed, this tube can be large numbers, with the subsequent improvement in renal function can be gradually reduced and disappeared. If chronic renal failure found that such tube, suggesting a poor prognosis.
normal urine is colorless or pale yellow or orange-yellow transparent liquid. Such as taking medication can make the urine yellow to yellow and even become brown; hematuria red turbid fluid can; hemoglobinuria or shaped bright red blood may appear hemoglobinuria; urine becomes milky white, is filariasis, or urine phosphate increased; urine turned black, or black malignant melanoma aciduria.
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